Saturday, 31 January 2015

(156) Applewhaite of Pickenham Hall

The Applewhaites were sugar plantation owners in Barbados from the early 17th century, and their distinctive name is thickly scattered through the island's historical records. Their main estate in the 19th century was Walkers Plantation, which is perhaps identifiable with the area known today as Applewhaite, where there are some ruins of a former plantation house and sugar mill. Edward Archer Applewhaite (1770-1804), who had trained in London as a barrister, died young leaving a large family, for whom his father, Thomas Applewhaite (d. 1815), initially provided. From the 1820s onwards, however, most of his children moved to England. His youngest son, Edward Archer Applewhaite (1799-1889), was in England by 1820 but continued to derive a healthy income from his share of the family plantations in Barbados, where he owned 223 slaves in 1834. After his marriage he lived first at Lindley Hall, Higham-on-the-Hill (Leics), but in 1844 he bought the 5,000 acre Pickenham Hall estate in Norfolk, where the house had recently been remodelled in an up-to-date neo-classical style by W.J. Donthorn. His eldest son, Edward Thornhill Applewhaite (1822-71) lived at Great Yarmouth (Norfolk) but died before his father, and in 1889, for reasons which are not clear, the estate passed not to Edward's children but to his brother, Charles Mundy Applewhaite (1834-97). By this time the Barbadian estates had mostly been sold, and it seems likely that the family were running short of money, as Pickenham Hall seems to have been in poor repair. After Charles died, his widow (who quickly remarried) sold the estate to her father, who in turn sold it a few years later to the banker, G.W. Taylor, who greatly remodelled the house. The Applewhaites owned Pickenham in all for fifty five years and two generations, so they meet the qualification for inclusion in this blog, but their real story lies in Barbados and the real story of Pickenham Hall belongs with the Chutes in the 18th and early 19th centuries and with the 20th century owners.

Pickenham Hall, South Pickenham, Norfolk
There was a late 17th century house on the site which was reputedly begun by Anthony Fisher (d. 1679) and completed by Sir Edward Atkyns (c.1630-98) in the 1690s. Atkyns, who had been Chief Baron of the Exchequer under King James II, refused to take an oath of allegiance to King William III and retired to his estates here in 1689. Nothing is known of the architect or appearance of this house.

The 17th century house was rebuilt in the Palladian style in the mid 18th century (probably about 1773, the date of the Home Farm) and remodelled again by W.J. Donthorn in 1829 for W.L. Wiggett-Chute. Pickenham was the first large Classical country house designed by Donthorn to actually be built, and he created a striking neo-Classical cube with an Ionic portico, the wall surface tightly defined by pilasters and friezes. In spirit, the design is closer to the works of Sir Robert Smirke than those of Donthorn's more eclectic former preceptor, Sir Jeffry Wyatville. On the garden front, the canted bays of the 1770s house were retained, giving this elevation a softer and more domestic character than the entrance front. Donthorn's designs are in the Royal Institute of British Architects' Drawings Collection; his plans show that most of the external walls of the earlier house were preserved under a coating of Roman cement.

Pickenham Hall: the Donthorn house from the sale particulars of 1843.

The present house is the result of a further extension and remodelling in 1902-05 by Robert Weir Schultz for the banker, G.W. Taylor, at a cost of more than £20,000.  He found the Donthorn house too small for his needs and in poor condition. His instructions to Schultz were 'to save as much of the house as was reasonably possible, and to incorporate it into a larger house to be built of red brick with white cornice and good chimneys'. In practice, Schultz kept only the external walls of the main block and one entire room, the library on the ground floor behind the left-hand bay window. To this building he added flanking blocks and a service wing, which provided two additional reception rooms and more specialised service accommodation. The whole house was encased in the client's preferred red brick.

Pickenham Hall: plan of the Schultz house. The shaded area represents the main block of the Donthorn house.

Schultz's additions are in the Arts & Crafts spirit but with a mix of neo-Jacobean and neo-Georgian features. The west front has a main entrance with a rusticated door surround and pilasters supporting a semicircular broken pediment with sculptured figures by Laurence Turner. The east front has big shaped gables over the projecting bay windows (preserved from the 1770s house), and further sculpture in carved brick by Turner over the garden doors. The south front has a two-bay loggia with semicircular arches of brick and tile, supporting a balcony the balustrade of which is an open grid of diagonal brickwork. The loggia is flanked by bay windows with shaped gables above. All the windows are casements, not sashes as one might expect. The Edwardian rebuilding extended to the stables, which are also neo-Georgian. 

Pickenham Hall, from an early 20th century postcard.

The house stands in a parkland setting in the picturesque valley of the River Wissey. A small park of about 75 acres existed by 1797 around the Palladian house, but the present landscape seems to date from c.1830, when the park was expanded to about 125 acres and shelter belts were planted almost continuously around the boundaries. At the same time, the River Wissey was dammed to form a narrow lake. Within this setting, R.W. Schultz created an Arts & Crafts garden around the new house. The entrance forecourt is gravelled and bounded by a ha-ha to give uninterrupted views out into the west park.  A stone and brick terrace runs around the south and east sides of the house, with steps down to the lawns below, and immediately below the eastern terrace a path, backed by yew hedges and herbaceous borders, leads to a covered loggia with a brick rear wall and open trellis work above, which was once flanked by carved panels - reproductions of the Parthenon frieze from Donthorn's mansion.  Down a flight of steps to the east is a Chinese garden with a tea house, lantern and wooden bridge across the River Wissey to a riverside walk on the opposite bank, and to the south of the Chinese garden is a formal sunken garden surrounded by yew hedges with a gazebo.  The gardens fell into neglect during the Second World War, when the house was occupied by the Red Cross, but were restored by Mrs Guy Moreton in the late 20th century. Today the house stands at the centre of the 5,800 acre estate of Malaysian business tycoon, Tan Sri Apavoo Packiri Arumugam.

Descent: William Methwold (fl. 1496)... William Methwold (d. 1586); to son, William Methwold (fl. late 16th cent.); sold c.1600 to Thomas Bradbury; sold to Sir Henry Hobart (d. 1638); sold after his death to William Methwold (fl. 1650) of Kensington (Middx); sold? 1670 to Sir Thomas Player, kt. (d. 1686); sold to Anthony Fisher (d. 1679); to son, Anthony Fisher (fl. c.1680-90); sold to Sir Edward Atkyns (c.1630-98), kt.; to son, Rich Atkyns, who sold 1700 to Thomas Chute (c.1660-1701); to son Thomas Lennard Chute (d. 1723); to brother, Devereux Chute (c.1691-1724); to nephew, Thomas Lobb (later Chute) (d. 1791); to son, William John Chute (1757-1824); to brother, Rev. Thomas Vere Chute (d. 1827); to kinsman, William Lyde Wiggett (later Wiggett-Chute) (1800-79); sold 1844 to Edward Archer Applewhaite (1800-89); to son, Charles Mundy Applewhaite (1834-97); to widow, Mary Florence Applewhaite (later Blake), who sold 1899 to Joseph Trueman Mills, who sold 1902 to G.W. Taylor; sold 1918 to speculators; sold 1924 to John Smith Moreton (1858-1948); to son, Guy Moreton (b. 1904), who sold 1986 to Richard Daniels; sold 1993 to a corporate owner; sold again before 1999 to Tan Sri Apavoo Packiri Arumugam.

Applewhaite family of Pickenham Hall

Applewhaite, Edward Archer (1770-1804) of Barbados. Second son of Thomas Applewhaite (d. 1815) of Barbados, born 1770. Educated at Middle Temple (admitted 1786; called to bar, 1790); barrister-at-law, practising in Barbados. He married, 4 August 1791 at St Michael, Barbados, Mary (d. c.1822), daughter of Philip Lytcott of Barbados and had issue:
(1) Mary Ellen alias Eleanor Applewhaite (1794-1873), born 30 August 1794 and baptised 19 September 1795; married John Chase Eversley (1786-1853) and had issue one son and three daughters; moved to England and settled in Bath; died in London, 15 June 1873; will proved 7 August 1873 (effects under £14,000);
(2) twin?, Thomas Applewhaite (1795-1808), baptised 27 November 1795; died young and was buried 29 May 1808;
(3) twin?, Mary Mercy Applewhaite (1795-1846), born 16 August 1795; married, 15 October 1811, Reynold Alleyne Ellcock and had issue; died in London, 23 May 1846 and was buried at Kensal Green, 28 May 1846; grant of administration with will annexed, 30 March 1847 (effects under £4,000);
(4) Philip Lytcott Applewhaite (1796-c.1841), baptised 28 December 1796 at Christ Church, Barbados; educated at Inner Temple (admitted 1813) and Queens College, Oxford (matriculated 1814); married 1st, 13 March 1817, Susan Todd (d. 1826) and had issue two sons and three daughters; married 2nd, 24 July 1827 at St Michael, Barbados, Ann Crichlow, and had issue two sons; will proved 24 November 1841;
(5) Edward Archer Applewhaite (1799-1889) (q.v.);
(6) Sarah Applewhaite (b. 1798), born 19 January 1798; married, 20 January 1817, John Bovell;
(7) Frances Applewhaite (b. 1800), born 17 July 1800; living in 1820;
(8) Anne Applewhaite (1801-90), born 10 October 1801; married, 7 September 1820, William Maynard Pinder (1792-1869) and had issue three sons and five daughters; moved to England about 1827 and settled at Weston-super-Mare; died 16 December 1890; will proved 13 February 1891 (estate £1,756);
(9) Louisa Applewhaite (1802-86), born 26 November 1802; married, 2 November 1820, Edmund John Eversley and had issue; moved to England and settled in Bath; died in Bath, 6 May 1886; will proved 8 June 1886 (effects £428).
He died in 1804 and his will was proved 10 September 1804. His widow died in about 1822; her will was proved 18 March 1822.

Applewhaite, Edward Archer (1799-1889) of Pickenham Hall. Younger son of Edward Archer Applewhaite (1770-1804) of Barbados, and his wife Mary, daughter of Philip Lytcott of Barbados, born 19 April and baptised at Christ Church, Barbados, 16 May 1799. In 1834 he was owner of 223 slaves on Walkers Plantation, Barbados. JP and DL for Norfolk. He married, 20 April 1820 at St Marylebone (Middx), Judith Frewen (1800-75), daughter of Samson Tickle Wood, and had issue, with other children who were stillborn or died in infancy:
(1) Edward Thornhill Applewhaite (1822-71) (q.v.);
(2) Thomas Wood Applewhaite (b. 1823), born 2 April 1823 and baptised 22 April 1823 at Higham-on-the-Hill (Leics) and 13 July 1824 at St Marylebone (Middx);
(3) Sarah Kerwan Applewhaite (1824-1912), born 26 June and baptised 13 July 1824; married 1st, 17 February 1857, Capt. Edward Rawlings Hannam (1827-75) and 2nd, 2 April 1879, Edward Samuel Evans Hartopp (1820-94); died without issue, 21 November 1912; will proved 7 January 1913 (estate £6,282);
(4) Lt. Augustus William Applewhaite (1826-54), baptised 2 March 1826 at Higham-on-the-Hill (Leics); adjutant to 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers; died on board the 'Andes', 22 September 1854, from wounds received at Battle of Alma;
(5) Harriet Constantia Applewhaite (1829-95), born October and baptised 10 November 1829; married, 17 July 1860, Ludovic Levison (1830-94), vice-consul to Denmark and consul for Chile, and had issue two sons and two daughters; died April 1895;
(6) Col. Charles Mundy Applewhaite (1834-97) (q.v.);
(7) Julia Marion Applewhaite (1835-81), baptised 5 May 1835 at Higham-on-the-Hill; married, 12 January 1864, Thomas Jourdain Hay (1826-1901) and had issue one son and one daughter; buried 5 November 1881;
(8) Earnest Gaskin Bassett Applewhaite (1837-82), born 13 February and baptised 15 March 1837; married, 20 April 1869, Ada Mary (1849-78), daughter of Frederick Grimmer and had issue one son; buried 24 October 1882;
(9) Hanson Henry Applewhaite (1838-1927), born 16 May and baptised 14 June 1838; Captain in Radnorshire Militia; married, 1898, Lilian Helen Tuck Fletcher (1871-1946) and had issue two sons; died 16 December 1927; will proved 25 February 1928 (estate £7,386).
After his marriage he lived at Lindley Hall, Higham-on-the-Hill (Leics). He purchased the Pickenham Hall estate in 1842. 
He died 8 November was buried at South Pickenham, 13 November 1889; his will was proved 17 February 1890 (effects £13,279). His wife died 29 November and was buried 4 December 1875.

Applewhaite, Edward Thornhill (1822-71). Eldest son of Edward Archer Applewhaite (1800-89) of Pickenham Hall and his wife Judith Frewen, daughter of Samson Tickle Wood, born 16 February 1822 and baptised 17 February 1822 at Higham-on-the-Hill (Leics) and 13 July 1824 at St Marylebone. He married 1st, 22 April 1858, Eleanor (d. 1860), daughter of Philip Lytcott Hinds of Byfleet (Surrey) and 2nd, 25 February 1862 at St Thomas church, St Marylebone (Middx), Jane (1831-90), only daughter of Thomas Hay and had issue:
(2.1) Edward Hay Hinds Applewhaite (1862-1950), born 7 December 1862; emigrated to Canada in 1890 and became a fruit grower in Nelson, British Columbia; married Evelyn Nicholson Turney (1875-1943) and had issue two sons and one daughter; died 25 October 1950;
(2.2) Harry Hanham Applewhaite (1864-1938), born 20 March 1864; served as Captain in 1st Battn, Norfolk Regiment; married, 6 December 1887 (sep. by 1901), Emily Jane St. Thomas Easton (1860-1936) and had issue one son and two daughters; emigrated to Canada, 1909; died 29 November 1938 in Nelson, British Columbia;
(2.3) Rev. Frederick Arthur Applewhaite (1866-1925), born Jan-Mar 1866; educated at Exeter College, Oxford (matriculated 1884; BA 1888; MA 1903); ordained deacon, 1889 and priest, 1892; curate of Moordown (Hants), 1889-92 and St Saviour, Dartmouth (Devon), 1892-94; vicar of Aston Cantlow (Worcs), 1894; rector of Chaddesley Corbett (Worcs); married, 13 July 1893 at Dartmouth, Minnie Augusta (b. c.1868), daughter of Walter Greenfield of Worthing (Sussex); died 26 November 1925; will proved 13 January 1926 (estate £492);
(2.4) Mabel Blanche Eleanor Applewhaite (1867-1960), born Apr-Jun 1867; married Apr-Jun 1891 (sep. 1896) Samuel Henry Augustus Buxton (b. 1864), land agent, son of Dr. Thomas Buxton of Fazeley (Staffs), and had issue two sons; emigrated to Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada) with her husband but separated informally from him and returned to England before 1896, where she tried making a living on the stage and was later in business; sued her husband for restitution of conjugal rights, 1904 but was living apart from him in 1911; died 29 August 1960 aged 93; will proved 29 November 1960 (estate £5,291);
(2.5) Cora Eveline Applewhaite (1868-1961), born Oct-Dec 1868; married 23 August 1892 Max Richard von Tyszka and had issue; died Jan-Mar 1961, aged 92; buried at Weare (Somerset).
After his marriage he lived successively in London, Brighton and Great Yarmouth. After his death, his widow lived at Fairfield, Peterchurch (Herefs).
He died in the lifetime of his father, 16 May 1871. His first wife died 15 June 1860, following a stillbirth. His widow died 28 November 1890; her will was proved 23 February 1891 (effects £10,554).

Applewhaite, Col. Charles Mundy (1834-97) of Pickenham Hall. Third son of Edward Archer Applewhaite (1800-89) of Pickenham Hall and his wife Judith Frewen, daughter of Samson Tickle Wood, born 27 June 1834. JP for Norfolk; Served in East Norfolk Militia (Major, 1875; Colonel commanding 4th Battn). He married, 30 April 1889, Mary Florence, youngest daughter of Joseph Trueman Mills of Clermont (Norfolk) and Highfield (Leics) and had issue:
(1) Charles Trueman Applewhaite (b. 1891), born 8 January 1891; married, 27 July 1912 at St John, Notting Hill (Middx), Elizabeth (1888-1953), daughter of Prof. Thomas William Drinkwater, and had issue two daughters; served in WW1 as Lieutenant in West Riding Regiment and later in Norfolk Regiment; date of death not found.
He was one of the trustees of the Pickenham estate after his father's death in 1889 and occupied the house until his death. After his death his widow married his co-trustee, the family solicitor Henry Blake, and they sold the estate in 1899 to her father.
He died 15 February 1897. His widow married 2nd, 12 July 1898, Henry Blake of Bramerton Hall (Norfolk), solicitor; her date of death has not been traced.

Burke's Landed Gentry, 1898, p. 25; F. Blomefield, An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk, 1807, vol. 6, pp. 70-76; R. O'Donnell, "W.J. Donthorn (1799-1859), Architectural History, 1978, p. 83; D. Ottewill, "Robert Weir Schultz", Architectural History,  1979, pp 88-115; Genealogies of Barbados families, excerpted from Carribeana and the Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society, 1983, pp. 108-24; G. Winkley, The country houses of Norfolk, 1986, p. 116; Sir N. Pevsner & B. Wilson, The buildings of England: Norfolk - North-West and South, 2nd edn., 1999, p.665; D. Clarke, The country houses of Norfolk, part 1: The Major Houses, 2006, pp. 63-64;

Location of archives
No significant archive is known to survive.

Coat of arms
No coat of arms is recorded for this family. However an Applewhaite family of Suffolk used the following coat of arms in the 17th century and were probably related: Gules, on a fesse argent three pineapples slipped vert; in chief a sword barwise pointed to the sinister side argent hilted or.

Sunday, 25 January 2015

(155) Apperly of Rodborough Court

Apperly of Rodborough
The Apperly family rose to prominence in the 19th century as woollen cloth manufacturers in the Stroud area of Gloucestershire. The firm is thought to have been founded as early as 1794, but in 1832 John Apperly said that most of his buildings at Dudbridge Mill, Cainscross, near Stroud (Glos) had been built within the last three years. John's son, David Apperly (1812-87) managed and grew the business from the 1850s to 1872, when he retired to Cheltenham, apparently to pursue an interest in homeopathy. His eldest son, Alfred Apperly (1839-1913), took over the management of the business and rapidly expanded it to the point where it produced large profits. Although his personal wealth at death was modest, at some £43,000, the firm was by then a limited company (Apperly Curtis & Co.) which was valued at around £250,000 in the 1890s.  Sir Alfred (as he became in 1907) was also active in local politics and public affairs. He chaired the Mid Gloucestershire Liberal Association and was a County and District Councillor, a Guardian of the Poor, and a Justice of the Peace. From about 1870 he assembled a compact landed estate at Rodborough near Stroud, on which in 1888 he built Rodborough Court, probably to the designs of Alfred Bucknall, an architect and builder from a Rodborough family. The house was expanded further in 1899 to designs of the young Percy Morley Horder, who was married to one of Sir Alfred's nieces.

When Sir Alfred died in 1913, he had recently changed his will to leave Rodborough Court to his widow absolutely rather than leaving her a life interest with remainder to his eldest son, Charles Alfred Apperly (1872-1939), probably because Charles had just built a new house on Rodborough Common, called Cotsmoor. Charles did inherit his father's shares in the family business, of which he duly became Chairman, but under his leadership the business lost its way and it closed down in 1933. One local source describes Charles as 'a wastrel son', which may be a bit harsh as he became Chairman at a difficult period for the local cloth industry, when many other businesses also closed; but it certainly appears that Charles had a fondness for travel and he can have given limited attention to the business through the 1920s.

Lady Apperly sold Rodborough Court in 1923, although she retained a tenancy for life on a flat in the house, which she occupied until her death in 1931. Charles sold Cotsmoor in the 1920s and rented a house at Southbourne (Hants); he also owned a villa on Tenereife in the Canary Islands.  After Apperly Curtis & Co. closed, he left England altogether and lived for the rest of his life in the south of France, where he died a few days after the outbreak of the Second World War.

Rodborough Court, Gloucestershire
About 1870, Sir Alfred Apperly, a mill owner based at Dudbridge near Stroud, began to assemble a small estate in Rodborough which included Stringer’s Farm. It was based around a house called The Hawthornes, which had been bought by David Apperly in 1850, and which was sold to Alfred in 1872.  

Rodborough Court: exterior. The house was built in 1888 and extended in 1899.
Image: Michael Hill.

In 1888, a new house, replacing The Hawthornes, was built and probably designed for Alfred Apperly by Alfred Bucknall of Clifton, a brother of the architect of Woodchester Park, Benjamin Bucknall.  (The Bucknalls were a Rodborough family, and Benjamin’s younger brothers, Robert and Alfred, were builders as well as architects). The new house was tall and built on elevated ground beside the road which offered splendid views westwards toward the River Severn.  A robust Renaissance style was used, curiously combined with elements of Cotswold vernacular, and the house was built in fine Bath stone ashlar with a clay-tiled roof. The south-west front was the most imposing, dominated by a tall hipped-roof tower with a decorative frieze around the top.  At the south-east entrance was a porch tower with a similar frieze, crowned by a pedimented gable containing a carved tympanum, which gave the house a somewhat sober air.

Internally, the house was richly furnished, with many of the reception rooms having oak panelling.  A curiosity was the fully panelled inglenook in the dining room, entered through a three-centred timber archway.  This room was a curious mix of Arts and Crafts and of Beaux Arts influences. The drawing room was in a less eccentric neo-Georgian style, with a carefully co-ordinated plasterwork ceiling, frieze, dado and chimneypiece typical of many nouveaux riches homes.

Rodborough Court: drawing room c.1923. Image: Gloucestershire Archives SL46

The house was extended to the north-east in 1899, and apparently increased in height.  The designer for these alterations was Percy Morley-Horder, who was London-based but related by marriage to the Apperlys. After Sir Alfred’s death in 1913, the house continued to be occupied by his widow, although part of it was later let out.  In 1923 it was sold, together with the gardener’s cottage (called by then Briarton), and Stringer’s Farm, although Lady Apperly continued in occupation of part of the house. Eventually the house was sub-divided into flats, but in 1964 it was put up for sale.  Fearing that the house would be demolished, Alan Payne, a local accountant, bought it for use as offices by his firm, Randall & Payne, a purpose it fulfilled until recently. In 2014 the house was on the market.

Rodborough Court was the largest house in the village, and the extensive well-planted gardens that Apperly created around it ran down to the Stroud to Nailsworth road at the Golden Cross.  Because of the relatively cramped site, the stables, kitchen gardens and orchards and an extensive set of greenhouses were sited on the opposite side of the road known as Walkley Hill.  The further part of the garden was reached by a bridge which crossed the sunken lane leading to the centre of Rodborough.  The grounds were well admired locally, being used for various village events, hosted by Sir Alfred, particularly in connection with the Rodborough Tabernacle, of which he was a member.  The garden area furthest west was sold off after the Second World War, and a detached house was built there in the 1950s, as part of the expansion of Rodborough into a large residential suburb of Stroud.  During this time, all of the land on the south side of Walkley Hill was built over, and all trace of the kitchen gardens was lost.  The house is now somewhat hemmed in by housing, although it retains a good deal of its garden.

Apperly family of Rodborough Court

Apperly, David (1812-87). Son of John Apperly (d. 1858) of Cainscross, cloth manufacturer, and his wife Ann Cooper (d. 1843), born 2 July and baptised at Rodborough Tabernacle, 11 October 1812. Nonconformist cloth manufacturer; retired 1872 and became a homeopathist. He married, 28 March 1838 at St Mary Magdalene, Taunton (Somerset), Ellen (1817-1900), daughter of Thomas Jacobs of Taunton, and had issue:
(1) Sir Alfred Apperly (1839-1913) (q.v.);
(2) Ellen Apperly (1840-99), born Apr-Jun 1840; lived at 2 Oxford Buildings, Cheltenham (Glos) with a companion; died unmarried, 10 April 1899; administration granted to her mother, 30 June 1899 (effects £313);
(3) Edward Apperly (c.1843-1931); farmer at Alma Villa, Hatherley Road, Cheltenham; married, 1871, Elizabeth Sarah Warlock and had issue two daughters; died in 1931 aged 88;
(4) Ebenezer Apperly (c.1845-1930); dental surgeon; married 1st, 1871, Jessie Nelson Coombes (c.1853-1906) and had issue two sons and one daughter (Rosa Catherine Apperly (1872-1961), who married the architect Percy Morley Horder); married 2nd, Oct-Dec 1910, Jane Ellis (c.1862-1943); died 7 February 1930, aged 85; will proved 16 April 1930 (estate £3,927);
(5) David Cooper Apperly (1846-1933), born 17 February 1846; woollen merchant; lived in Hackney (Middx) and later in Ealing (Middx) and at Glebelands, Bidborough (Kent); married 1st, 12 April 1870 at Milton, Glasgow, Louisa Margaret McKenzie (1846-1907) and had issue one son and four daughters; married 2nd, 1910 in San Remo (Italy), Beatrice Teresa Eccles (1877-1949) and had further issue one son and one daughter; died 19 December 1933 aged 87 and was buried at Rusthall (Kent); will proved 27 March 1934 (estate £114,583);
(6) Rosa Elizabeth Apperly (b. 1849), born Jul-Sep 1849; unmarried and living with her parents in 1881 but disappears from the records without trace thereafter;
(7) Frances Apperly (b. 1852), born Oct-Dec 1852; married, 1876, Walter (b. c.1852), son of Philip Charles Evans of Brimscombe Court (Glos) and had issue four sons and four daughters; emigrated to South Africa and lived at Brimscombe Farm, Hanover, Cape Province; living in 1895;
(8) John Theodore Apperly (b. 1854), born Oct-Dec 1854; commission agent in London; married, 4 June 1887 at St Jude, Grays Inn Road, London, Constance Emma (b. c.1862), daughter of George Cove and had issue two sons; living in Islington in 1901 but disappears from the records thereafter;
(9) Emily Georgiana Apperly (1857-1922), born Apr-Jun 1857; died unmarried, 2 May 1922; will proved 10 June 1922 (effects £1,210);
(10) Herbert Apperly (1860-1932), born Oct-Dec 1860; dental surgeon in Cavendish Square, London; married, 1887, Florence Edmunds (1856-1952) and had issue two sons and three daughters; died 24 February and was buried at Chipstead (Surrey), 27 February 1932; will proved 12 April 1932 (estate £23,306);
(11) Mary Apperly (c.1863-76); died young, Jan-Mar 1876.
He lived in Stroud and later at Rodborough and Cheltenham (all Glos).
He died 28 April 1887; his will was proved 24 August 1887 (effects £165). His widow died 22 March 1900; her will was proved 19 December 1900 (effects £241).

Apperly, Sir Alfred (1839-1913), kt., of Rodborough Court.  Eldest son of David Apperly (1812-87) and his wife Ellen, daughter of Thomas Jacobs, born 2 January 1839. Cloth mill owner; chairman of Apperly, Curtis & Co., of Dudbridge Mill 1895-1913. A leading light of the Rodborough Tabernacle Methodist church. President, Mid Gloucestershire Liberal Association. Knighted 1907. JP and County Councillor for Gloucestershire; Chairman of Rodborough School Board; a member of Stroud Rural District Council and Stroud Board of Guardians. He married, 19 January 1865 at Egham (Surrey), Maria (1846-1931), daughter of Henry Charles Paice of Aubrey Haw, Egham and had issue:
(1) Ethel Marianne Apperly (1867-1959), born 23 May 1867; married, 9 January 1889, James David Hunter Hedderwick (1845-1926) of Glasgow and had issue one son and four daughters; died 5 August 1959, aged 92;
(2) Jessie Maria Apperly (1869-1953), born Apr-Jun 1869; married, 8 September 1897, Albert Edward Tilley (1871-1940) of Hampstead (Middx), chartered accountant, and had issue one son and one daughter; died 10 July 1953; will proved 11 September 1953 (estate £5,127);
(3) Rose Ellen Apperly (1871-1946), born Apr-Jun 1871; married, 31 October 1901, George Daniel Gooch (1879-1969) of Furze Hill Lodge, Kingswood (Surrey) and had issue two sons and one daughter; died 22 June 1946; will proved 29 October 1946 (estate £3,162);
(4) Charles Alfred Apperly (1872-1939) (q.v.);
(5) Capt. Ernest Paice Apperly (1874-1952), born 2 December 1874; cloth manufacturer with Apperly Curtis & Co. and later at Huddersfield (Yorks); served in Royal Engineers in WW1 (Capt.); lived at Spring Vale House, Huddersfield (Yorks) c.1911-29; married, 29 June 1899 at Banstead (Surrey), Edith (b. 1872), daughter of James Byres Watt of Castleton, Banstead and had issue a daughter; died 1 June 1952; will proved 31 July 1952 (estate £1,665);
(6) Arthur Lancelot Apperly (1877-1916), born 29 May 1877; educated at Cheltenham College; served in 5th Battn., Gloucestershire Regiment in WW1; killed in action on the Somme, 27 August 1916 and is commemorated on the memorial to the missing at Thiepval; administration granted to his mother (estate £1,638).
He built up the Rodborough Court estate from 1870 and built a new house in 1888 which was enlarged in 1899. At his death the estate passed to his widow, who sold the freehold in 1923.
He died 7 September 1913 aged 74; his will was proved 14 October 1913 (estate £43,384). His widow died 23 February 1931; her will was proved 8 May 1931 (estate £3,005).

Apperly, Charles Alfred (1872-1939), of Rodborough Court. Eldest son of Sir Alfred Apperly (1839-1913) and his wife Maria, daughter of Henry Charles Paice of Aubrey Haw, Egham (Surrey), born 21 November 1872. Educated at Cheltenham College. Served in Gloucestershire Volunteer Engineers (Lt., 1893; Capt., 1900). JP for Gloucestershire, 1906. Succeeded his father as Chairman of Apperly, Curtis & Co., but seems not to have had the same aptitude for or interest in the business, which ceased trading in 1933. He married, 21 November 1912, Florence Mary (d. 1967), daughter of Joseph Lees of Minnickfold, Holmwood (Surrey) and had issue:
(1) Alfreda Josephine Apperly (1913-2002), born 7 September 1913; married, 1936, Frank Matheson McBain (d. 1991), only son of James A.D. McBain of Hill House, Kenley; died 4 May 2002; will proved 14 October 2002;
(2) Marjorie Florence Apperly (1916-2010), born 11 April 1916; married, 8 August 1950 at East Molesey (Surrey), Harold Small (1911-96) of Montreal (Canada); died 14 February 2010 aged 93.
He lived at Rodborough Court until 1913 when he moved to a newly-built house called Cotsmoor on Rodborough Common. By 1929 he was living at Southbourne (Hants) and had a villa in Tenereife; after the family firm closed in 1933 he settled in France at Villa Sphinx, Valescure, St. Raphael, Var (France).
He died 18 September 1939; his will was proved 7 March 1940 (estate £4,975 in England). His widow died 22 January 1967; her will was proved 19 April 1967 (estate £8,779).

Burke's Landed Gentry, 1952, p. 48; VCH Glos, xi, p. 221; J. Tann, Gloucestershire Woollen Mills, 1967, p. 156; D. Verey & A. Brooks, The buildings of England: Gloucestershire - The Cotswolds, 1999, pp. 579-80; N.W. Kingsley & M.J. Hill, The country houses of Gloucestershire, 1830-2000, 2001, pp. 212-13;

Location of archives
No significant archive is known to survive.

Coat of arms
Argent, a bend between six pine-cones vert.

Friday, 23 January 2015

(154) Anwyl of Parc and Llugwy Hall

Anwyl of Parc and Llugwy
The Anwyl family trace their descent from Owain Gwynedd (c.1100-70), King of Gwynedd 1137-70, through his sixth son, Rhodri ap Owain Gwynedd (d. 1195), and they may now represent the senior male line descendants of this Welsh royal house. It was, however, not until ten generations after this royal genesis that Robert ap Morris alias Robert Anwyl (c.1500-76) settled on the Parc estate in the parish of Llanfrothen (Merioneths). Robert built the first house at Parc and perhaps laid out the garden overlooked by a viewing tower, which was a clear mark of high status, despite the simple nature of the buildings. His son, Lewis Anwyl (c.1535-1605), extended the house by the addition of a wing, now largely derelict.  In the next generation, William Lewis Anwyl (c.1570-1642) played a prominent part in the public life of Merionethshire and maintained a bard, Huw Machno, who composed verses celebrating the estate. In about 1625 William built a detached lodging range, perhaps because the size of his family meant there was no room for visitors in the main building. He married the heiress of a cadet branch of the Herbert family and together they produced an enormous family of at least sixteen children, including three sons who served as sheriff of the county. Robert Anwyl (c.1598-1653), the eldest son to survive his father, was an active Royalist who was fined heavily for lending money to the King during the Civil War, but after his death his widow Catherine (d. 1700) seems to have converted the lodging range into a new house, perhaps in fulfilment of her late husband's intention.

Catherine was clearly a strong woman and remained the dominant force at Parc throughout the 17th century, outliving both her sons, and dying only a few months before her grandson, William Lewis Anwyl (c.1670-1701) of Parc.  After his death without children the descent of the estate was the subject of litigation for some forty years, although his widow (d. 1716) had a life interest; it eventually passed through William's niece Catherine (d. 1726) to the Williams baronets of Marle and fell out of gentry use. In 1942 it was sold to the architect and landowner, Sir Clough Williams-Ellis as an addition to his Plas Brondanw estate, and he restored some of the buildings for use as a farmhouse.

The sixth son of William Lewis Anwyl (c.1570-1642) was Ieuan Anwill (c.1609-66), who in about 1637 purchased the Llugwy estate at the other end of Merionethshire, in the parish of Pennal, where according to tradition there was a house built in 1611.  Almost nothing is known about this house except that it was apparently Jacobean in style and was enlarged about 1746. It descended from father to son down to Jonathan Bunce Anwyl (d. 1852), and then passed in turn to two of his nephews. It was described as 'very ancient' in 1872 and Robert Charles Anwyl (1849-1933), who inherited in that year, rebuilt it in a neo-Jacobean style in about 1891; the architect is unknown. Robert passed it to his son, Capt. Maurice Ifan Hamilton Anwyl (1889-1942), who was the last of this branch of the family in the male line, but after his death it was sold in 1948 to his brother-in-law, Douglas Fraser Carson (1890-1978). The house became an hotel in the 1960s but is now once more in private occupation.

The present senior line of the Anwyls derives from Evan Anwyl (1719-1811), younger son of Ieuan Anwyl (c.1680-1722) of Llugwy, who inherited a subsidiary property at Bacheiddan (Montgomeryshire). His descendants are farmers at Towyn (Denbighs).

Parc, Llanfrothen, Merionethshire

Parc, Llanfrothen: the mid 17th century reworking of the early 17th century lodging range. Image: SADHYA

Despite the fact that the Anwyls were one of the leading county families in Merionethshire in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, their seat remained architecturally modest by the standards obtaining in richer parts of Wales, let alone England, at this time. Its status is declared less through architectural style than through the extent of the scatter of buildings that made up the manorial site and by the existence of garden features which more modest houses would not have possessed. 

The earliest feature on the site is believed to have been a long house built by Robert ap Morys in the mid 16th century, which is now represented by a mound of rubble set above a terraced garden and the ruins of a garden tower described in the 17th century buy the Anwyls house-poet, Huw Machno. To this original building there was added on the south-west a late 16th century cross-wing. This is also now ruined, but its chimneystack incorporates a winding staircase and a fine square chimney. At a right-angle to this range again is a further building, of two full storeys. The upper floor of this block was originally cruck-framed, and it again has a winding staircase by the lower hearth and a round chimney. This block was converted into a farmhouse by Sir Clough Williams-Ellis in 1951, but this middle house is now unoccupied and in need of a new use.

Separated from the complex of buildings described so far by a small yard is a block that was apparently built as a range of lodgings for William Lewis Anwyl in about 1625. Each set of rooms originally had a separate entrance, with the upper ones reached by external wooden staircases. In the 1650s this appears to have become the main house, and the separate entrances were blocked, the external staircases removed, and internal circulation was introduced. From the south, the range now has a balanced composition, with two voussoir-headed doorways, one blocked, and two- and three-light mullioned windows to the first floor. Inside, the upper floor has a queen-post roof with cambered collar-beams which suggest use as a long gallery (or perhaps a granary). At the rear is an additional wing with a broad stone stair and one room on each floor. There is a datestone of 1671 with the initials of KA and LA, but it appears to have been re-set, and dendro-dates from the building point to construction in the 1660s. This block was first repaired by the author Richard Hughes in the 1930s.

North-east of the two house-blocks, on the old drive up from the Maesgwm river is a building suggestively named Gatws, in a similar style to the 17th century house. It seems likely that there was once a gatehouse building here, but curiously no building is shown in this position on an estate survey of 1802. The building certainly includes old materials (there are dendro-dates of 1618), and Richard Haslam conjectures that it represents a new building for Hugh Reveley, who bought the estate in the 1830s. It is picturesquely sited and was entered at first-floor level where there was a single heated room; it was enlarged in 1990 with a grass-roofed wing.

To the south-west of Gatws is a large square farmyard surrounded by mainly 18th century buildings, and at an angle to this a large square walled garden.  North-east of the house is a set of three ambitious stone terraces some 150 yards long with retaining walls ten feet high, which appear to have been orchards rather than garden walks.  The whole complex of buildings except for the walled garden is surrounded by a presumably 17th century rectangular high walled enclosure with a double viewpoint seat at the angle on the highest point of the hillside. 

Descent: estate sold to Robert ap Morris (alias Robert Anwyl) (c.1500-76); to son, Lewis Anwyl (c.1535-1605); to son, William Lewis Anwyl (d. 1642); to son, Robert Anwyl (c.1598-1653); to son, Lewis Anwyl (c.1652-79); to son, William Lewis Anwyl (d. 1701); to widow, Elizabeth Anwyl (née Owen) (d. 1716); to niece, Catherine Anwyl (d. 1726), wife of Sir Griffith Williams (d. 1734), 6th bt. of Marle; to son, Sir Robert Williams (d. 1745), 7th bt.; to sister Anne (d. 1770), wife of Sir Thomas Prendergast (d. 1770), 2nd bt. and later of Terence Prendergast, who sold 1748 to William Wynne of Wern, Penmorfa; to son?, Williams Wynn IV of Wern... sold 1796 to Sir Edward Pryce Lloyd (1768-1854), 1st Baron Mostyn, who sold 1834 to Hugh John Reveley of Brynygwyn, Dolgellau; to ?daughter, Fanny Jane Jelf-Reveley, who sold 1892...sold 1942 to Sir Clough Williams-Ellis (1883-1978), kt. of Plas Brondanw; to Trustees of Brondaw Estate.

Llugwy Hall, Pennal, Merionethshire

Llugwy Hall: garden front

The original house on this site is traditionally dated to 1611 and is said to have been enlarged c.1746 (a datestone of this date exists, now loose); the building was described as 'very ancient' in 1872. In about 1890-91 Robert Charles Anwyl greatly enlarged and rebuilt the house in neo-Jacobean style. On the entrance front the battlemented two-storey porch survives from the 17th century house; it has a Tudor-arched doorway under a mullioned and transomed window with arched top lights. The range behind the porch is in origin 17th century too, although little now demonstrates this. A service wing north of the porch was demolished in 1963 and was replaced by a modern building when the house became an hotel. The garden side is of 1891 and built of grey stone with red standstone mullioned and transomed windows, and shaped gables, and the interiors of the house are now all neo-Jacobean. At the end of the drive is a stuccoed L-plan lodge of the late 19th century, with a half-round oriel on one side and a square bay on the other, glazed in delicate cast iron and quite pretty. The house became a hotel in the 1960s but is now once more in private occupation.

Descent: sold c.1637 to Ieuan Anwill (c.1609-66), who built a new house here; to son, Maurice Anwill (d. 1686); to son, Ieuan Anwyll (c.1680-1722); to son, Maurice Anwyl (c.1717-83); to son, Evan Anwyl (1745-1817); to son, Jonathan Bunce Anwyl (1789-1852); to nephew, Robert Anwyl (c.1787-1867); to brother, Evan Anwyl (1789-1872); to son, Robert Charles Anwyl (1849-1933) who rebuilt the house; to son, Maurice Ifan Hamilton Anwyl (1889-1942); sold 1948 to brother-in-law, Douglas Fraser Corson (1890-1978); sold for use as an hotel in 1960s.

Anwyl family of Parc and Llugwy Hall

Anwyl, Robert (alias Robert ap Morys) (c.1500-76) of Parc. Fourth son of Morys ap John ap Maredudd, of Rhiwaedog, who claimed descent from Owain Gwynedd, born about 1500. He was described as “a man of retiring disposition, benevolent to his neighbours, devoted to local pursuits rather than to public life” by the contemporary poet, William Llyn. His elder son took the name Anwyl but his younger sons adopted the surname Roberts. He married Lowry, daughter of Lewis ap Ifan ap Dafydd of Pengwern, and had issue:
(1) Lewis Anwyl (c.1535-1605) (q.v.);
(2) John Roberts (fl. 1599) of Vanner (Merioneths); married Anna, daughter of Paul Ardericke and had issue;
(3) William Roberts, a merchant in Cheapside, London;
(4) Moreiddig Roberts;
(5) Rev. David Roberts (fl. 1595); rector of Llanbedrog; however this may be a confusion with a son of John Roberts of the same name and calling;
(3) Gwen Anwyl/Roberts (fl. 1576); married John Evans of Maentwrog;
(4) Margaret Anwyl/Roberts (fl. 1576); married William ap Griffith of Ystrad and had issue;
(5) Catherine Anwyl/Roberts (fl. 1576); married William ap David Lloyd of Gwernfynydd;
(6) Jonet Anwyl/Roberts (fl. 1576); married Owen ap David Lloyd of Llanfrothen;
(7) Jane Anwyl/Roberts (fl. 1576); married John ap Richard of Ffestiniog and had issue a daughter;
(8) Elizabeth Anwyl/Roberts (fl. 1576); married William ap Rhys ap Thomas of Nanmor and had issue.
He acquired the Parc estate in the 1520s and built the first recorded house there.
He died in 1576.

Anwyl, Lewis (c.1535-1605) of Parc. Eldest son of Robert Anwyl (d. 1576) and his wife Lowry, born about 1535. He married 1st, c.1565, Elizabeth, daughter of Morris ap Ieuan ap John, of Wern Penmorfa (Caernarvons) and 2nd, Margaret, daughter of Richard ap Ieuan of Pennarth, Penmachno (Caernarvons) and had issue:
(1.1) William Lewis Anwyl (d. 1642) (q.v.);
(1.2) Robert Lewis Anwyl (b. 1572), mercer; married Ann Giles of London;
(1.3) Morris Lewis Anwyl (c.1574-1648) of Dolfriog, Beddgelert (Caernarvons); High Sheriff of Caernarvonshire, 1611; married, c.1605, Elizabeth, daughter of William ap Humphrey of Pant Du, Llanllyfni (Caernarvons) and had issue six sons and two daughters, from whom descended the minor gentry family of Anwyl of Dolfriog; died 1648; will proved 20 January 1648/9;
(1.4) David Lewis Anwyl; married Ann Owen;
(1.5) Evan Lewis Anwyl (b. c.1585) of Ffestiniog (Merioneths); married Elin, daughter of John David of Ffestiniog and had issue;
(1.6) Lowry Anwyl; married Peter Meyrick (d. 1630) of Ucheldre;
(1.7) Ann Anwyl; married Anthony Poole;
(1.8) Gwen Anwyl; married William ap Hugh of Hafodgaregog, Nanmor;
(2.1) Richard Lewis Anwyl (b. c1593; fl. 1680) of Hafod y Wyryd (Merioneths); sheriff of Caernarvonshire; married 1st, Tryphena, daughter of Robert Winn of Brynkir and 2nd, Margaret, daughter of Evan Lloyd of Dulassau, by whom he had issue two sons and four daughters;
(2.2) Rev. John Lewis Anwyl (d. 1652), rector of Llandanwg (Merionths); married Ann Owen but died without issue;
(2.3) Evan Anwyl.
He inherited the Parc estate from his father in 1576.
He died in 1605 and his will was proved in the PCC, 14 November 1605.

Anwyl, William Lewis (c.1570-1642) of Parc. Eldest son of Lewis Anwyl (c.1535-1605) of Parc and his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Morris ap Ieuan ap John of Wern Penmorfa (Caernarvons), born about 1570. JP and DL for Merionethshire; High Sheriff of Merionethshire, 1611 and 1624, and of Caernarvonshire, 1637. He maintained Huw Machno (c.1585-1637) as a bard at Parc. He married Elizabeth, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Edward Herbert of Maes Machre, Cemmaes (Montgomeryshire) and had issue:
(1) Katherine Anwyl (c.1595-1639); married, 1611, William Wynne (d. 1638) of Glyn Cywarch, sheriff of Merionethshire, and had issue eight sons and four daughters; died 20/23 February 1638/9;
(2) Lewis Anwyl (c.1596-1641) of Cemmaes; High Sheriff of Merionethshire, 1640-41; married 1st, 12 September 1627, Frances (d. 1633), daughter of Sir William Jones, Chief Justice of Common Pleas and had issue one daughter; married 2nd, 1634/5, Magdalen, daughter of Sir Thomas Williams, 2nd bt. of Vaynol (Caernarvons) but had no further issue; died in the lifetime of his father, 1641;
(3) Robert Anwyl (c.1598-1653) of Parc (q.v.);
(4) John Anwyl (d. 1660) of Llanfendigaid (Merioneths); High Sheriff of Merionethshire, 1655; married, c.1617, Margaret, daughter and heir of Hugh ap John ap Hugh of Llanfendigaid and had issue one daughter; died 1659/60;
(5) Mabli Anwyl (fl. 1631); married 1st, 1625, Ellis Ellis (d. 1631) of Ystumlynn and had issue two sons and one daughter; married 2nd, Richard Coetmor and had issue one son;
(6) Edward Anwyl (b. c.1606); married, 30 April 1633, Jane, daughter of Thomas Owen of Botalog, Towyn, and had issue; died before 1674;
(7) Morris Anwyl; died young;
(8) Evan Anwyl (c.1609-66) of Llugwy (q.v.);
(9) William Anwyl (1610-94); married Margaret, daughter of Lewis Owen of Waen Leveney, and had issue one son, from whom descend the Anwyl-Passingham family of Bala;
(10) Emanuel Anwyl (d. 1646) of Criccieth (Caernarvons); married Jane, daughter of Hugh Gwyn of Pennarth and widow of Evan Jones, and had issue one son and one daughter; buried 5 May 1646;
(11) Elizabeth Anwyl; married David Lloyd of Croesonen (Denbighs) and had issue four sons and one daughter;
(12) Ann Anwyl; married 1st, Jenkin Vaughan of Caethle, and 2nd, John Lloyd of Cardigan;
(13) Gwen Anwyl; married, 1632, Richard Poole of Cae Nest and had issue four sons and one daughter;
(14) Jane Anwyl; married, as his third wife, Lewis Lloyd (1608-68) of Rhiwaedog and had issue one son;
(15) Lowry Anwyl; married 1st, James Brynkir (1600-44) and had issue one son; married 2nd, Richard Jones of Dol-y-Moch;
(16) Richard Anwyl (c.1620-85); DL for Merionethshire; High Sheriff of Merionethshire, 1658-60; nominated to the a knight of the Royal Oak, 1660; buried 28 May 1685.
He inherited the Parc estate from his father in 1605 and was probably responsible for the early 17th century buildings on the site. He also purchased the Llwyn estate at Dolgellau.
He died in 1642; his will was proved in June 1642.

Anwyl, Robert (c.1598-1653) of Parc. Second son of William Lewis Anwyl (c.1570-1642) and his wife Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Edward Herbert of Maes Machre, Cemmaes (Anglesey), born about 1598. An active Royalist; he conducted William Prynne from captivity in Caernarvon Castle by a hazardous voyage to the custody of the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey in 1637, and after the Civil War was fined for lending £300 to the king. JP for Merionethshire; High Sheriff of Merionethshire, 1650. He married Catherine (d. 1700), only daughter of Col. Sir John Owen of Clenneney, Vice-Admiral of North Wales, and had issue:
(1) Lewis Anwyl (c.1652-79) (q.v.);
(2) Owen Anwyl (c.1654-95) of Llwyn and Plas Newydd, Penrhyndeudraeth (Merioneths), born posthumously, 1654; built Plas Newydd c.1677; married, 1672, Elizabeth (d. 1686), daughter of William Griffith of Cefn Amlwch, Penllech (Caernarvons) and had issue two daughters; died 1695.
He inherited the Parc estate from his father in 1642. His widow apparently altered the lodging range at Parc into a new house after his death.
He died 11 October 1653. His widow was 'a woman of character and a patroness of Welsh literature' who outlived both her sons and died in 1700.

Anwyl, Lewis (c.1652-79) of Parc. Elder son of Robert Anwyl (c.1598-1653) of Parc and his wife Catherine (d. 1700), born about 1652. He married, 1668/9, Catherine (d. 1699), daughter of William Griffith of Cefn Amlwch (Caernarvons) and had issue:
(1) William Lewis Anwyl (d. 1701) of Parc (q.v.).
He inherited the Parc estate from his father in 1653. He apparently carried out some further work at Parc in 1671.
He died in February 1678/9 and was buried at Llanfrothen. His widow married 2nd, and as his second wife, Sir Hugh Owen (c.1645-99), 2nd bt., of Orielton (Pembs) and died in February 1698/99.

Anwyl, William Lewis (d. 1701) of Parc. Only son of Lewis Anwyl (c.1652-79) of Parc and his wife Catherine, daughter of William Griffith of Cefn Amlwch (Caernarvons), born about 1670. High Sheriff of Merionethshire, 1698-99. He married, 1695, Elizabeth (d. 1716), daughter of Sir Hugh Owen, 2nd bt., of Orielton, but had no issue.
He inherited the Parc estate from his father in 1678/9. After his death his estate was the subject of litigation for some forty years between rival claimants and was eventually divided between the Williamses of Marl and the Owens of Brogyntyn.
He died in London and was buried 9 February 1700/01, reputedly in Westminster Abbey. His widow married 2nd, 1703, Edward Brereton of Burras (c.1642-1725) and died in 1716.

Anwill, Ieuan or Evan (c.1609-66) of Llugwy. Sixth son of William Lewis Anwyl (c.1570-1642) of Parc and his wife Elizabeth, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Edward Herbert of Maes Machre, Cemmaes (Anglesey), born about 1609. He married, c.1643, Catherine, daughter of Maurice Williams of Hafodgaregog (Merioneths) and had issue:
(1) Maurice Anwill (d. 1686) (q.v.);
(2) Robert Anwill; died in the lifetime of his father;
(3) Elizabeth Anwill.
He lived at Brynkir (Caernarvons) and about 1637 purchased Llugwy Hall, which he probably rebuilt in the mid 17th century.
He died in 1666.

Anwill, Maurice (d. 1686) of Llugwy. Elder son of Ieuan or Evan Anwill (c.1609-66) of Llugwy and his wife Catherine, daughter of Maurice Williams of Hafodgaregog (Merioneths), probably born about 1645. He married, before 1678, Joane or Joanna, daughter of Hugh Pryce of Penmaendyfi (Caernarvons) and had issue:
(1) Catherine Anwyll (fl. 1681);
(2) Anne Anwyll (fl. 1681);
(3) Jane Anwyll (1678-1742); married, 10 November 1714, Rev. Thomas Vincent (né Corbet) (c.1677-1738), rector of Llanfachreth (Anglesey), and had issue; died 30 September 1742.
(4) Ieuan or Evan Anwyll (c.1680-1722) (q.v.);
He inherited Llugwy Hall from his father in 1666.
He is said to have been buried 2 December 1686, though some sources state he was living in 1695. His wife was living in 1689, but her date of death is unknown.

Anwyll, Ieuan or Evan (c.1680-1722) of Llugwy. Only son of Maurice Anwill (d. 1686) and his wife Joane, daughter of Hugh Pryce of Penmaendyfi (Caernarvons), born about 1680. He married ?Meallet [surname unknown] (d. 1737) and had issue:
(1) Anne Anwyl (d. c.1792); married [forename unknown] Evans (d. c.1792) and had issue;
(2) Jane Anwyl (d. 1792); married [name unknown] of Hydan-Dole, Castle Caereinion (Montgomerys) but had no issue; buried 21 September 1792;
(3) Maurice Anwyl (c.1717-83) (q.v.);
(4) Evan Anwyl (1719-1811) of Bacheiddan (Montgomerys), baptised 8 February 1718/19; married, 7 February 1748/49, Margaret (d. 1812), daughter of Evan Richard of Penmaen (Glamorgans) and had issue five sons and four daughters, from whom descend the Anwyls of Towyn; buried 17 March 1811, aged 92;
(5) Catherine Anwyl (1720-c.1805), baptised 14 October 1720; died unmarried after 1804.
He inherited Llugwy Hall from his father in 1686.
He was buried at Pennal, 26 January 1721/22. His widow was buried at Pennal, 31 October 1737.

Anwyl, Maurice (c.1717-83) of Llugwy. Elder son of Evan Anwyll (c.1680-1722) of Llugwy and his wife ?Meallet, born about 1717. He married, 19 October 1741, Anne (1717-1802), daughter of Hugh Evans of Machynlleth (Montgomerys) and had issue:
(1) Mary Anwyl (1742-1804), baptised 3 November 1742; died unmarried, 12 February 1804; will proved at Bangor, 1804;
(2) Evan Anwyl (1745-1817) (q.v.);
(3) Anne Anwyl (1749-69), baptised 7 April 1749; died unmarried aged 19, 16 January and was buried at Pennal, 20 January 1769;
(4) Susanna Anwyl (1751-68), baptised 15 February 1750/51; died unmarried aged 17, 8 July 1768 and was buried at Pennal, 12 July 1768;
(5) Rev. Maurice Anwyl (1753-1832) (q.v.).
He inherited Llugwy Hall from his father in 1722.
He died 1 June 1783 and was buried at Pennal, 5 June 1783. His widow was buried at Pennal, 13 November 1802.

Anwyl, Evan (1745-1817) of Llugwy. Elder son of Maurice Anwyl (c.1717-83) and his wife Anne, daughter of Hugh Evans of Machynlleth (Montgomerys), baptised 7 November 1745. Apparently the person of this name who was apprenticed to Jeremiah Carr of London, paviour, 1766. He married, 25 April 1774, Margaret Davies (d. 1808), grand-daughter of Jonathan Bunce (c.1700-83) of Glanfraed, Llandre (Cardigans) and had issue:
(1) Maurice Bunce Anwyl (1775-94); died unmarried;
(2) Anna Maria Anwyl (1777-1845), baptised 30 May 1777; married, 25 October 1796, William Hughes of Gogarth (Merioneths) but died without issue; buried 16 January 1845;
(3) Margaretta Anwyl (1780-1803), baptised 20 June 1780; died unmarried, 16 January 1803;
(4) Jonathan Bunce Anwyl (1789-1852) of Llugwy, baptised 19 March 1789; JP and DL for Merionethshire; died unmarried 1 April 1852 aged 63 and was buried at Pennal, 5 April 1852.
He inherited Llugwy Hall from his father in 1783. At his death it passed to his surviving son and then to his nephews, Robert Anwyl (c.1787-1867) and Evan Anwyl (1789-1872) in turn.
He died 4 April 1817 aged 71 and buried at Pennal, 8 April 1817; his will was proved in the PCC, 5 August 1817. His wife died 11 October 1808 and was buried at Pennal, 15 October 1808.

Anwyl, Rev. Maurice (1753-1832). Younger son of Maurice Anwyl (c.1717-83) and his wife Anne, daughter of Hugh Evans of Machynlleth (Montgomerys), baptised 23 March 1753. Educated at Jesus College, Oxford (matriculated 1772; BA 1776). Ordained deacon, 1776 and priest, 1777; curate of Penegoes (Montgomerys), 1776-78; Llanwrin (Montgomerys), 1778-80; Pennal (Merioneths) 1780-1802; Towyn (Denbighs), 1802-05; Vicar of Llangurig (Montgomerys), 1805-32. He married, 19 September 1784, Anne (1756-1819), daughter of ?Charles Lloyd of Shrewsbury (Shrops) and had issue:
(1) Maurice Anwyl (1785-92), baptised 7 August 1785 at Pennal; died aged 6 and was buried 6 July 1792;
(2) Robert Anwyl (1787-1867) (q.v.);
(3) Evan Anwyl (1789-1872) (q.v.);
(4) Anne Anwyl; died in infancy;
(5) Elizabeth Anwyl (1792-1870), born 19 January 1792; died unmarried aged 78, 11 April 1870, and was buried at Pennal, 16 April 1870;
(6) Catherine Anwyl (1794-1823), born 27 July 1794; died unmarried aged 27 and was buried at Pennal, 30 June 1823;
(7) Charles Anwyl (1799-1828), baptised 23 July 1799; died unmarried in London, 8 October and was buried at Pennal, 22 October 1828;
He died 12 April 1832 aged 79 and was buried at Pennal, 27 April 1832. His wife died 16 July 1819 aged 63 and was buried at Pennal, 19 July 1819.

Anwyl, Robert (1787-1867) of Llugwy. Eldest surviving son of Rev. Maurice Anwyl (1753-1832) and his wife Anne, daughter of Charles Lloyd of Shrewsbury (Shrops), baptised 14 July 1787. Warehouseman in London, at first in partnership with his younger brother (dissolved 1830) and later on his own. He was unmarried and without issue.
He inherited Llugwy Hall from his uncle in 1852.
He died 21 June 1867, aged 80.

Anwyl, Evan (1789-1872) of Llugwy. Second surviving son of Rev. Maurice Anwyl (1753-1832) and his wife Anne, daughter of Charles Lloyd of Shrewsbury (Shrops), born 10 September 1789. Warehouseman in London, at first in partnership with his elder brother (dissolved 1830) and later on his own. He married, 17 May 1836 at St Stephen, Coleman St., London, Jemima (1815-88), daughter of William Morgan of Brynallys (Montgomerys) and had issue:
(1) Maurice Anwyl (b. & d. 1837), born 10 March and baptised 23 April 1837 at St Stephen, Coleman St, London; died aged 5 months and was buried 8 September 1837 at St Giles without Cripplegate, London;
(2) Evan Anwyl (1838-41), baptised at Holy Trinity, Islington (Middx), 12 September 1838; died aged 2 and was buried at St Giles without Cripplegate, London, 8 July 1841;
(3) Anne Anwyl (1840-1935), baptised 7 June 1840 at St Stephen, Coleman St., London; died unmarried, 27 September 1935, aged 95; will proved 25 February 1936 (estate £1,367);
(4) William Anwyl (1842-56), born 27 February and baptised 24 April 1842 at St Stephen, Coleman St., London; died unmarried, 17 August 1856, aged 14;
(5) Jemima Anwyl (1844-1931), baptised 30 June 1844 at St Stephen, Coleman St., London; married, 12 August 1884 at Stanford-le-Hope (Essex), William Harman (1849-1923), tea planter, son of Ezekiel Dickinson Harman, gent; died without issue at Llwynon, Pennal (Merioneths), 23 March 1931, aged 86; will proved 30 June 1931 (estate £6,420);
(6) Elizabeth Louisa Anwyl (1847-1938), baptised 8 August 1847 at St Stephen, Coleman St., London; died unmarried, 11 March 1938 aged 90; will proved 16 November 1938 (estate £988);
(7) Robert Charles Anwyl (1849-1933) (q.v.);
(8) Catherine Winifred Anwyl (1851-1945), born 9 November 1851 and baptised 6 June 1852 at St Stephen, Coleman St., London; died unmarried, 11 June 1945 aged 93; will proved 1 August 1947 (estate £3,195);
(9) Maria Florence Anwyl (1855-75), baptised 29 May 1855 at St Matthew, Brixton (London); died unmarried of congestion of the lungs, 6 June 1875, aged 20.
He lived and worked in London until his brother inherited Llugwy Hall in 1852, and thereafter lived at Llwynon on the estate until he in turn inherited Llugwy in 1867.
He died of bronchitis, 18 January 1872, aged 83; his will was proved 24 February 1872 (effects under £6,000). His widow died 5 October 1888 aged 73; a grant of administration of her goods was issued 9 February 1889 (effects £96).

Anwyl, Robert Charles (1849-1933) of Llugwy. Only surviving son of Evan Anwyl (1789-1872) and his wife Jemima, daughter of William Morgan of Brynallys (Montgomerys), born 12 July and baptised 4 November 1849 at St Stephen Coleman St., London. Educated at Shrewsbury School. JP and DL for Merionethshire and JP for Montgomeryshire; Lt. in Montgomeryshire Yeomanry Cavalry for ten years; High Sheriff of Merionethshire, 1900; County Councillor and later Alderman of Merionethshire; a Director of the Welshpool & Llanfair Railway Co. He married, 25 August 1886 at St George's Hanover Square, London, Harriette (c.1865-1928), daughter of William Hamilton and had issue:
(1) Capt. Maurice Ifan Hamilton Anwyl (1889-1942) (q.v.);
(2) Mary Annesta Anwyl (1887-1980), born 9 October 1887 and baptised 12 February 1888 at Willenhall (Staffs); married, 12 March 1930 at Tezpur, Bengal (India), Douglas Fraser Corson (1890-1978), son of George Corson of Carn Dearg, Gairloch (Ross & Cromarty) and had issue one son; died 10 February 1980; will proved 6 May 1980 (estate £33,324).
He inherited Llugwy Hall from his father in 1872 and rebuilt it c.1891 (the house was void at the time of the 1891 census and he was living nearby).
He died 21 February 1933 aged 83; his will was proved 6 July 1933 (effects £3,880). His wife died 30 September 1928; grants of administration of her effects were made 3 April 1929, 16 July 1931 and 28 February 1949 (estates of £6295, £185 and £2,500).

Anwyl, Capt. Maurice Ifan Hamilton (1889-1942) of Llugwy. Only son of Robert Charles Anwyl (1849-1933) of Llugwy and his wife Harriette, daughter of William Hamilton, born 12 January 1889. Served in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, 1908-21 (2nd Lt, 1909; Lt., 1911; Capt., 1914). He was unmarried and without issue.
He inherited Llugwy Hall from his father in 1933. It was sold to his brother-in-law in 1948 following his death.
He died 3 July 1942; his will was proved 2 December 1942 (estate £29,526 in England & Wales and £156 in Northern Ireland).


Burke's Landed Gentry: the principality of Wales and the North-West, 2005, pp. 33-35; T. Nicholas, Annals and Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales, pp. 699-700; Hemp & Gresham, 'Park, Llanfrothen, and the unit system', Archaeologia Cambrensis, 97 (1943), pp. 97-112; R. Haslam et al, The buildings of Wales: Gwynedd, 2009, pp. 578-79, 683;;

Location of archives

Anwyl family of Llugwy: estate and family papers, 1633-1949 [Meirionnydd Record Office, Dolgellau Z/DO]

Coat of arms

Vert, three eagles displayed in fesse or. [This is the same coat of arms as it said was used by Owain, King of Gwynedd.]

Sunday, 11 January 2015

(153) Antrobus of Amesbury Abbey, Lower Cheam House and Eaton Hall, baronets

Antrobus of Amesbury and Eaton
The Antrobus family plausibly claim descent from a medieval Cheshire gentry family based at Antrobus Hall in Great Budworth, which Henry Antrobus sold to the Venables family in 1460. They remained in the area but with a lower status through the 16th and 17th centuries until Edmund Antrobus of Odd Rode in Astbury, reputedly the great-great-grandson of Henry Antrobus, repurchased some of the ancestral lands in about 1700. Edmund's son, Philip Antrobus (1677-1749) and grandson, Philip Antrobus (1720-88) were dyers at Congleton and seem to have become increasingly prosperous. None of the second Philip's four surviving sons followed him into the family business, however: Edmund, Philip and John moved to London and pursued careers in banking and finance; Thomas, about whom least is known, may have joined the East India Company and later became a merchant in Canton (China), where he died, perhaps in the 1790s.

The three London-based brothers were all successful. Edmund (1752-1826), the eldest, became a clerk in Thomas Coutts' bank, was taken into partnership in 1777, and when he died in 1826 was a baronet and left a fortune estimated at £700,000 and newly-acquired estates at Amesbury (Wilts) and Rutherford (Roxburghshire). Philip (1754-1816) set himself up as a stockbroker and founded the firm which later became one of the great London broking businesses, James Capel & Co. By the 1780s he was able to buy an estate at Cheam in Surrey, close enough to London for easy commuting, and in the 1790s he built there a typical 'cit's country box' - a house three bays square with a service wing to one side. A little later he also bought the Eaton estate near Congleton in Cheshire as well as land near Leek in Staffordshire, perhaps with a view to a future retirement to his home county. When he died unmarried in 1816, however, all his real estate passed to his elder brother, Edmund.  The third brother, John (1761-94), who after a brief period in stockbroking also joined Coutts Bank and was taken into partnership in 1784, was the only one who married. In 1793, on a visit to his in-laws at Saint Hill House (Sussex), he was involved in an accident at a tollgate in which he was badly crushed when his horse rolled on him. He lingered in a coma for some months and during this period his wife also died after giving birth to their second son. The two infants were brought up by their bachelor uncles and treated to all intents and purposes as their own sons: for example, when Sir Edmund Antrobus was given his baronetcy in 1815 he arranged a special remainder in their favour. The elder nephew, later Sir Edmund Antrobus (1792-1870), 2nd bt., joined Coutts Bank and became a partner in 1816; the younger, Gibbs Crawfurd Antrobus (1793-1861), entered the diplomatic service.  When the first Sir Edmund died in 1826 the four estates which he and his brother had amassed were distributed between the two nephews, Edmund receiving Amesbury, Rutherford (where there was never a seat) and Cheam and Gibbs, Eaton Hall and the other lands in Cheshire and Staffordshire.

In the 1820s the 17th and 18th century house at Amesbury was in poor condition, and in 1834 a major outbreak of dry rot was discovered. Sir Edmund Antrobus decided it was uneconomic to repair the building and had it pulled down and  rebuilt by Thomas Hopper to a design which reproduced elements of its predecessor, albeit on a rather larger scale. Work was in progress from 1834-41 but was then paused, only to resume in 1857-60, after Hopper's death. When Sir Edmund died in 1870, his estates were once again divided, with his heir, Sir Edmund Antrobus (1818-99), 3rd bt., receiving Amesbury and Rutherford, and his second son, Hugh Lindsay Antrobus (1823-99), who had followed his father into Coutts Bank and eventually became its Chairman, receiving Lower Cheam Manor. Hugh Antrobus had no son to succeed him and the Cheam house seems to have been let after his death; it was demolished in about 1933. Three of his four daughters married into country houses, and the only one who remained single built her own, to the design of Detmar Blow and his partner Fernand Billerey: the charming and elegant Charles Hill Court at Tilford (Surrey) of 1908. Coutts money was still pounding through the veins of this branch of the family.

Charles Hill Court, Tilford (Surrey), designed by Detmar Blow in 1908 for Elizabeth Antrobus.
Charles Hill Court: the oval library.

The main branch of the family was less flourishing by the early 20th century. The 3rd baronet had eschewed a business career for a life in politics, becoming MP for East Surrey, 1841-47 and for Wilton 1855-77. He had three sons: Sir Edmund Antrobus (1848-1915), 4th bt., who became a Colonel in the Grenadier Guards and whose only son was killed at Ypres a few months before his father died; Robert Lindsay Antrobus (1857-91), who entered Coutts Bank as a junior partner, but shot himself for no obvious reason at the age of 33; and Sir Cosmo Gordon Antrobus (1859-1939), 5th bt., who became a barrister on the Western Circuit, and who remained unmarried. In 1916-22, the Amesbury and Rutherford estates, including Stonehenge, were largely disposed of through a series of sales, and Sir Cosmo was left with only a couple of hundred acres around Amesbury Abbey and West Amesbury House. When he died in 1939, the baronetcy and this patrimony passed to his second cousin, Sir Philip Humphrey Antrobus (1876-1968), 6th bt., who was a grandson of the 2nd baronet. He had been a stockbroker, but was of retirement age when he inherited, and had to shepherd the house and reduced estate through the dark years after the Second World War when there seemed so little future for landed estates and country houses. Amesbury Abbey was turned into flats in the 1960s, and Sir Philip moved into West Amesbury House on the estate. He and his wife had no children, so when he died aged 91, the baronetcy and estate again passed to a distant relative, this time a South African-born great-grandson of Gibbs Crawfurd Antrobus of Eaton Hall, Sir Philip Coutts Antrobus (1908-95), 7th bt, who sold Amesbury Abbey in 1979 for conversion to a nursing home. His son, Sir Edward Philip Antrobus (b. 1938), is the 8th and current baronet.

The second orphaned son of John Antrobus (1761-94) was Gibbs Crawfurd Antrobus (1793-1861), who after a fifteen-year career in the diplomatic service and as a Tory MP in the unreformed House of Commons, came into the Eaton Hall estate in 1826. He at once set about rebuilding the house in the Elizabethan style to the designs of Lewis Wyatt. The house that resulted, although grand and fashionable in its day, strikes modern eyes as rather coarse, and in striking contrast to the pretty travelling carriage which carried him around Europe in his days as a diplomat. His son, John Coutts Antrobus (1829-1916) was remarkable chiefly for marrying three times and producing no less than fourteen children over thirty-five years. After he died, the Eaton estate passed in turn to his eldest son, Crawfurd John Antrobus (1862-1943), who worked as a land agent during his father's lifetime, and who died without children; and to his youngest son, Col. Ronald Henry Antrobus (1891-1980), who sold most of the grounds for gravel extraction in the post-Second World War period. By the time of his death, the house stood almost on the edge of a precipice over the quarry, and his son, John Ronald Lindsay Antrobus (1926-2000) sold the house for demolition by the quarry company so that they could extract the rich deposits underneath the house.

Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire

Amesbury Abbey today: this aerial view of the house from the rear emphasizes the large scale of the Victorian house.
The house is the successor to Amesbury Priory, a nunnery founded in 980 and refounded as a priory of the Order of Fontevrault in 1177. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries the site was granted to Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford (brother to the Queen, Jane Seymour), who between 1541 and 1543 took down most of the priory buildings and sold the materials, retaining only the Prior's Lodging and some stables and outbuildings. Although Seymour (as Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector of the Realm) has a place in architectural history for initiating the building of the innovative Somerset House in London, he did not have the opportunity to build a new house at Amesbury before he was accused of treason, forfeited his estates, and died on the block in 1552. His son, Edward Seymour (1537-1621) was restored to favour by Queen Elizabeth, re-created Earl of Hertford, and recovered the Amesbury estate. In 1560, when he leased the estate to his steward, the house was said to be 'in great ruin', and between 1595 and 1599 a new mansion house was erected by the Earl.  No illustration of this house is known.

'Diana Her Hous 1600' from a photograph of c.1880. Diana's house is one of two surviving buildings from the Earl of Hertford's Amesbury of 1595-1607

All that survives of this period are the two gatehouses to the east, on the Pewsey road, called Kent House and Diana's House. Both are built of flint with stone dressings, are irregularly triangular in shape and have a higher stair turret, and both have ogee-shaped roofs; Diana's House has the inscription "Diana Her Hous 1600" and Kent House, which was enlarged in the 18th century (perhaps by Flitcroft in 1761), is dated 1607.  In the wall next to Diana's house is an arch with a strapwork cresting which is likely to be of similar date. There seems until c.1710 also to have been an another building in a similar style with an inscription on a four-centred stone doorhead in lettering identical in character to that on Diana's house and no doubt related to it.  William Benson leased Amesbury Abbey for 21 years from 1708 while his new house at Wilbury was being built. His lease allowed him to demolish two summerhouses and a gatehouse near the George Inn, provided he replaced them with 'a handsome and convenient gate', and the gatepiers of this period next to Kent House, with alternating rocky rustication, may be his response to this requirement. Fortunately, the summerhouses (i.e. Diana's House and Kent House) were spared but the gatehouse was taken down.  The materials seem to have been reconstructed by Benson as a folly on Tower Hill, two miles from his new house at Wilbury; recent archaeology provides some slight evidence that this consisted of a central rectangular tower with hexagonal turrets to either side. This tower itself had collapsed by 1839 and some of the stonework, including a spiral staircase, was reused in Newton Tony church in 1843-44, but part of the inscription referred to above survived to be photographed in the mid 20th century and says "...His Tower 1600". 

The inscription on Diana's House at Amesbury, 1600.
Image: English Heritage. Some rights reserved
The lost inscription from Benson's Folly at Wilbury.
  Image: English Heritage. Some rights reserved

The traditional explanation of the Diana inscription is that it refers to a mistress of the Earl of Hertford, but the former existence of another building with a complementary inscription makes it more probable that these were features in a now lost scheme of symbolic meaning in the landscape setting of the Earl's new house.  It is worth noting that the Earl - who had an intermittently difficult relationship with Queen Elizabeth and her court officials - provided a highly emblematic entertainment for her when she visited his house at Elvetham (Hants) in 1591, and it is intriguing to speculate to whom the gatehouse/tower was dedicated: the other half of the doorway would have provided space for quite a long name. 

Although the Amesbury estate was seized by the Commonwealth authorities in the 1650s, the Marquess of Hertford was allowed to retain the house for his own use, and in anticipation of his restoration to his estates he employed John Webb to design a new house in the late 1650s, although work may not have been begun until after 1660, the year in which he was restored to the Dukedom of Somerset and died a few weeks later. 

Amesbury Abbey: the entrance front of the John Webb house of c.1661 as illustrated in Vitruvius Britannicus, 1725.

Webb built a new nine-bay house in the pure Classical style of Inigo Jones, with a pedimented giant portico of four columns rising above a rusticated ground floor. The first floor was rusticated too, and there was a low attic storey above. The house had a hipped roof with a domed belvedere on it. The compact plan was neatly contrived, and drew particular praise from C.R. Cockerell in the early 19th century:
Plan regular and remarkably elegant. Saloon above stairs delightful with handsome dressings to doors, chimney pieces and ceiling - contrivance of the staircase with backstairs in the newel the most convenient and elegant that can be conceived... There are offices below as well as abundant bed ro[oms] above & I consider that for economy of convenience with proportion & effect, it may challenge any Ho[use] in England ancient or modern.
Amesbury Abbey: the ground and first floor plans of the John Webb house, from Vitruvius Britannicus, 1725.

The remarkable staircase appears to have been the starting point for the plan of the house; coupled with the provision of transverse corridors on both main floors, it minimised the amount of space given up to internal circulation and allowed Webb to make the rear rooms self-contained apartments with bedrooms and dressing rooms, separate from the formal sequence of hall, main stair and saloon. The first-floor saloon rose into the chamber storey above, giving space for a generous coved ceiling which in its form and painted decoration recalled the cube rooms at nearby Wilton House. The house was highly regarded in the 18th century; the elevations and plans were published by both Colen Campbell (1725) and William Kent (1727), and it seems to have inspired William Benson, briefly the tenant, to build one of the first neo-Palladian houses a few miles away at Wilbury in 1710

Amesbury Abbey showing the wings by Henry Flitcroft; from a drawing by Buckler in 1805, published in 1826.

In 1725, the house passed to the 3rd Duke of Queensberry, for whom wings either side of the main front were added by Henry Flitcroft; the east wing was built first and was apparently finished by 1750; the west wing followed in 1757-61. The form of the wings, set back slightly from the plane of the entrance front and unobtrusive, suggests considerable empathy with the original building. At the rear of each wing were built low towers, which gracefully echoed Webb's stair tower by including round windows in their top storey. The wings were designed to address the complaint of visitors to the Webb house that it contained only one good room (the first floor saloon) by providing more entertaining space, and there was a drawing room above a library in the east wing and a dining room (above a new kitchen) in the west wing. By 1787 a commentator found the house had 'numerous and superb' apartments, 'all richly furnished and many of them fitted up in a splendid modern stile'.

From 1778 the Douglas family used Amesbury little, if at all, and it was rented out; by 1801 John Britton found the grounds overgrown. After the house was acquired by Sir Edmund Antrobus, a local architect, John Flook, made proposals for alterations in the Webb block, and for additional service accommodation. But nothing was done because in 1834 a major outbreak of dry rot was discovered, and it was concluded that the house was in too bad a state to restore.  

Amesbury Abbey, as rebuilt by Thomas Hopper, 1834-41, from a photograph of c.1880.

The task of rebuilding it was entrusted to Thomas Hopper (d. 1856), who incorporated some of the original walls and some 17th and 18th century fittings; work was begun in 1834-41 but suspended with the house unfinished and only completed in 1857-60. In keeping with Tim Mowl's nickname for the architect ("Hopper the Whopper"), the new house is on a considerably larger scale than its predecessor, although the entrance front retained the overall style and some of the features of the Webb house. Hopper demolished Flitcroft's wings, but kept to a nine bay front, while making a portico of six instead of four columns, with a porte-cochere on the ground floor. He maintained the rustication of the ground floor and first floor, and the placing of the main rooms on the first floor, but increased the height of the second floor and altered the roof completely. The heavy window surrounds on the top floor, the side elevations with a giant order supporting an attic storey above the cornice, and of course the big central tower are all Hopper's designs.  

Amesbury Abbey in 1979. Image: Nicholas Kingsley. Some rights reserved.

Under the tower is a dramatic staircase hall, clearly inspired by that at Kings Weston, which Hopper had altered earlier in his career. The galleries of the hall gave access to a drawing room on the east side, a dining room on the west side, and an enormous saloon (74' x 22') which occupied the whole of the south front and gave onto the balcony of the porte-cochere. The saloon has been divided up, but the big dining room survives, with a heavily-moulded plaster ceiling. The rear of the house comprises the service accommodation, which was extended in 1857-60. Further works were carried out in 1904 by Detmar Blow, who altered some of the main interiors while copying the details and mouldings used by Hopper.

Charles Bridgeman's design for laying out the park at Amesbury, 1738.
Image: Bodleian Library MS Gough Drawing a.3*, fol. 32.

In the early 18th century, and almost certainly from when it was built, the house stood within walled enclosures: that on the north-east contained gardens, and on the south there was a forecourt with a semicircular south perimeter from which a double avenue led to the church. The grounds were enlarged in the 1730s and again in the 1760s by the Duke of Queensberry, who bought land north of the River Avon and the Iron Age hillfort known as Vespasian's Camp to the west, and were landscaped by Charles Bridgeman, whose plan is dated 1738 and who received payments from 1731-38. Little if anything of his layout survives, but it was certainly carried out, as 18th century maps attest. 

View of Gay's Cave on the hillside to the west of the house, from a photograph of c.1880.
The grotto is now a building at risk.

The grotto known as Gay's Cave* halfway up the hillside across the river to the west of the house is shown on his plan and was perhaps designed by Henry Flitcroft, who received payments over a long period for work at Amesbury. The Chinese Temple on a bridge across the river is recorded as early as 1748, but was said in 1757 to be unfinished; Sir William Chambers was consulted about its decoration in 1772 and it has often been thought to be a rebuilding by him of that date, but there is no warrant for this in the surviving correspondence. It is a most attractive square flint structure, built above the water, with oval windows and a wooden veranda, and was restored in 1986.  

Amesbury Abbey: the Chinese temple from a photograph of 1880.

The Baluster Bridge is dated 1777 but stands on the site of a bridge on the Bridgeman plan; this does seem to be a rebuilding, and is attributed to John Smeaton. The gatepiers next to the church, which have pairs of Tuscan columns with niches between, are believed to be John Webb's original forecourt gates, resited here between 1773 and 1805 when the circular, walled forecourt of the house which Webb had created was removed.

Amesbury Abbey: the gatepiers near the church are believed to be Webb's forecourt gatepiers of the 1660s.

In the 1960s the house was divided into flats, and in 1979 it was sold to J.V. Cornelius-Read, who converted it into a nursing home, a purpose which it continues to serve.

Descent: Crown granted 1537 to Edward Seymour (c.1500-52), 1st Earl of Hertford and 1st Duke of Somerset; to son, Edward Seymour (1537-1621), 1st Earl of Hertford; to grandson, William Seymour (1588-1660), 2nd Earl & 1st Marquess of Hertford; restored to his great-grandfather's dukedom as 2nd Duke of Somerset, 1660; to grandson, William Seymour (1652-71), 3rd Duke of Somerset; to uncle, John Seymour (c.1633-75), 4th Duke of Somerset; to niece, Elizabeth (d. 1697), wife of Thomas Bruce (1656-1741), 2nd Earl of Ailesbury & 3rd Earl of Elgin, who leased the house to Francis Boyle (1623-99), 1st Viscount Shannon; to son, Hon. Charles Bruce, who leased the house to William Benson in 1708 and sold it in 1720 to Henry Boyle (1669-1725), 1st Baron Carleton; to nephew, Charles Douglas (1698-1778), 3rd Duke of Queensberry & 2nd Duke of Dover; to cousin once removed, William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry (1724-1810), who leased it to Sir Elijah Impey, 1792-94 and to a community of English nuns from Louvain, 1794-99; to Archibald James Edward Douglas (1748-1827), 1st Baron Douglas of Douglas, who sold 1824/5 for £145,000 to Sir Edmund Antrobus (d. 1826), 1st bt.; to nephew, Sir Edmund William Antrobus (1792-1870), 2nd bt; to son, Sir Edmund Antrobus (1818-99), 3rd bt.; to son, Sir Edmund Antrobus (1848-1915), 4th bt.; to brother, Sir Cosmo Gordon Antrobus (1859-1939), 5th bt., who sold most of the estate in 1915; to cousin, Sir Philip Humphrey Antrobus (1876-1968), 6th bt.; to second cousin once removed, Sir Philip Coutts Antrobus (1908-95), 7th bt., who sold 1979 to J.V. Cornelius-Read, who converted the house into a residential nursing home.
* The poet and playwright John Gay was a particular protégé of the Duchess of Queensberry and is said to have written The Beggar's Opera in the gardens at Amesbury.

Lower Cheam Manor, Surrey

The original manor house of East Cheam was an ancient structure, said to have been built for Thomas Fromound in the late 16th century. Daniel Lysons, in The Environs of London, 1792, recorded that: 
"The hall remains in its original form, the upper part being surrounded by an open wooden gallery: adjoining the hall, are the buttery and cellar with ancient doors: in the parlour is some rich mantled carving. The chapel is converted into a billiard-room. This house and premises, called the Site of the Manor of East Cheam, were held under the crown by the Fromounds, after the manor itself was granted to Lord Montague. They continued in possession of it till the middle of the last century. Bartholomew Fromound, who was fined the sum of 240l. by James I. as a recusant, died in 1641, and was the last of that family settled at Cheam. The premises afterwards became the property of the Petres, and were sold a few years ago by Lord Petre to Philip Antrobus, Esq. the present proprietor."
Lower Cheam House: painted by Frank Worker, 1932. Image: Sutton Museum & Heritage Service
Very shortly after Lysons published his description the old house was demolished and replaced by a square three bay villa with a lower service wing to the north, built by an unknown architect for Philip Antrobus (d. 1816). The entrance front was given strong central emphasis by a slightly projecting porch with coupled Tuscan columns supporting a first floor balcony; this in turn stood in front of a first floor window treated as an aedicule with columns and a pediment, with a Diocletian window in the attic above, and a broad chimneystack on the roof. This house was apparently demolished in 1933 and most of the land was later developed for housing.  The house had a small park attached, parts of the boundary wall of which may survive.

Lower Cheam House, as depicted on the Ordnance Survey 6" map surveyed in 1866-67
Descent: sold in 1780s to Philip Antrobus (1754-1816) who rebuilt the house c.1795; to brother, Sir Edmund Antrobus (1752-1826), 1st bt.; to nephew, Sir Edmund Antrobus (1792-1870), 2nd bt.; to younger son, Hugh Lindsay Antrobus (1823-99); to widow, Kathryn Mary Antrobus (1829-1900)...

Eaton Hall, Congleton, Cheshire

The earliest house here of which anything is known was the small Georgian box bought by the Antrobus family in the early 19th century. In 1813 S.P. Cockerell drew up a scheme to enlarge the house and remodel the park for Sir Edmund Antrobus, 1st bt., but nothing was done until after Sir Edmund died in 1826 and the house passed to his nephew, Gibbs Crawford Antrobus. He obtained alternative schemes from Lewis Wyatt and Thomas Lee (formerly Wyatt's clerk of works), but chose Wyatt's proposal. Antrobus at first wanted to enlarge the existing house, but was persuaded to build anew on a different site, and in the Elizabethan style.  

Eaton Hall, Eaton-by-Congleton: entrance front

Eaton Hall, Eaton-by-Congleton: garden front shortly before demolition

The house that resulted is clothed in diapered brick, with shaped gables and stone mullioned windows, but it is still essentially a classical house in fancy dress. Only on the entrance front was an effort made to disguise the basic symmetry with towers, bay windows and an attic over the porch. At the time it was built in 1829-31, Wyatt was also building Cranage Hall in the same county and the two houses have many similarities. The interior was plainly Classical with rather coarse plaster cornices and high mahogany double doors between the main rooms. Much of the estate was sold in 1917 and later in the 20th century the grounds were sold for quarrying, gravel workings gradually eating their way to within a few feet of the house.  Eaton Hall was ultimately demolished in 1981 to allow the extraction of the gravel underneath. All that survives today is Wyatt's stable block of 1831. 

Eaton Hall, as depicted on the 6" Ordnance Survey map surveyed in 1871-73.

Proposals for landscaping by John Webb in 1808 and by Cockerell in 1813 appear not to have been implemented, but in the later 19th century the Ordnance Survey map shows clear signs of another scheme having been executed.

Descent: sold to Philip Antrobus (1754-1816) before 1807; to brother, Sir Edmund Antrobus (1752-1826), 1st bt.; to nephew, Gibbs Crawford Antrobus (1793-1861); to son, John Coutts Antrobus (1829-1916); to son, Crawfurd John Antrobus (1862-1943); to brother, Col. Ronald Henry Antrobus (1891-1980); to son, John Ronald Lindsay Antrobus (1926-2000), who sold for demolition and quarrying, 1981.

West Amesbury House, Wiltshire

Watercolour of West Amesbury House by Robert Kemm, 1860.
Image: Salisbury & South Wiltshire Museum.

The house incorporates as its west (left-hand) wing a small mid 16th century farmhouse with thick walls of rubble and a five-bayed roof with arch-braced collar trusses and curved wind braces. The first floor was originally a single room open to the roof. The house was altered in the early 17th century and two walls of panelling of this date are preserved. In 1735 the house was bought by the 3rd Duke of Queensberry and a large eastern extension was built and the original house was refitted. 

West Amesbury House: south front, 1924. Image: English Heritage NMR BB008176

It is generally assumed that at the same the gabled south front of the old house was rebuilt as part of a new symmetrical south front with a narrow slightly recessed entrance. However, the watercolour of 1860 by Robert Kemm (1837-95) reproduced above shows a very different arrangement of this front. This must either represent the employment of artistic licence or imply that the front as it currently stands is a Victorian alteration. The consistent pattern of chequered stone and flint, with mullioned windows and tall gables, suggests a deliberate attempt to give the house an appearance of antiquity, which might be more consistent with a 19th century date. We know from an article of 1868 by an author whose father had occupied the house that that in 1824-25 a range of building to the east was demolished, and that "about twenty-five years since, the court in front was filled up by building some rooms": this would put the alteration to c.1843 which is a plausible date for such an antiquarian alteration, but still leaves the Kemm drawing as recording a lost reality and one which Kemm himself could barely have remembered from childhood. [If any reader can throw further light on this issue, please post a comment below!]

By 1773 a small formal garden had been made around the house and an avenue had been planted between the street and the river; the rusticated 18th century gate piers at the entrance to the avenue are visible in the photograph above. The house was used as an estate farmhouse in the 19th century but after modernisation by Detmar Blow in about 1902 for Edward & Pamela Tennant (who lived here while Blow was building Wilsford House for them), it became a secondary house on the Amesbury estate, and when the Abbey was converted into flats in the 1960s, it became the main residence on the estate. It is now let.

Antrobus family of Amesbury Abbey, baronets and of Eaton Hall, Eaton-by-Congleton

Antrobus, Philip (1720-88). Son of Philip Antrobus (1677-1749), dyer, of Congleton and his wife Anne (c.1688-1775), daughter of John Vardon of Congleton. Dyer; Mayor of Congleton, 1771-72 and 1780-81. He married, 1745, Mary (c.1720-91), daughter of Thomas Rowley of Overton (Staffs) and had issue:
(1) William Antrobus (1746-50), baptised 3 March 1746; died young and was buried at Astley, April 1750;
(2) Mary Antrobus (d. 1802) of Antrobus House, Congleton; died unmarried and was buried at Astbury, 15 May 1802;
(3) Frances Antrobus (d. 1753); buried 25 September 1753;
(4) Jane Antrobus (1750-1828), of Antrobus House, Congleton, baptised 22 April 1750; died unmarried and was buried at Astbury, 8 April 1828, aged 78;
(5) Sir Edmund Antrobus (1752-1826), 1st bt. (q.v.);
(6) Frances Antrobus (b. 1753), baptised 29 September 1753; died young and unmarried;
(7) Philip Antrobus (1754-1816) (q.v.); 
(8) Thomas Antrobus (b. 1757), baptised 22 July 1757; perhaps to be identified with the writer to the East India Company active in the 1780s; merchant in China; died unmarried at Canton, perhaps in the 1790s;
(9) John Antrobus (1761-94) (q.v.)
He lived at Congleton (Cheshire) but also owned land at Antrobus (Cheshire) which his ancestors had anciently possessed and which his grandfather repurchased about 1700.
He died aged 68 and was buried at Astley, 8 November 1788; his will was proved at Chester. His widow died aged 71 and was buried at Astley, 11 February 1791.

Sir Edmund Antrobus, 1st bt.
Antrobus, Sir Edmund (1752-1826), 1st bt., of Eaton Hall and Amesbury Abbey. Second son of Philip Antrobus of Congleton and his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Rowley of Overton (Staffs), baptised at Congleton, 17 March 1752. A partner in Coutts Bank from 1777; he also had silk-weaving interests in Congleton. He was created a baronet of the United Kingdom (styled 'of Antrobus'), 22 May 1815, with remainder to his nephews. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries of London. He was unmarried and without issue.
He inherited the Lower Cheam House and Eaton Hall estates from his brother Philip in 1816 and purchased the Amesbury Abbey estate in 1824 and the Rutherford estate in Roxburghshire. At his death his estates were divided between his two nephews, Sir Edmund Antrobus, 1st bt. and Gibbs Crawfurd Antrobus.
He died 6 February 1826 and was buried at Cheam, where he is commemorated by a monument; his estate was estimated at £700,000.

Antrobus, Philip (1754-1816), of Lower Cheam House. Younger son of Philip Antrobus of Congleton and his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Rowley of Overton (Staffs), baptised 27 December 1754 at Congleton. Stockbroker in London; the firm he founded became James Capel & Co. and later part of the HSBC Group; Freeman of the City of London, 1786. He was unmarried and without issue.
He purchased the Lower Cheam estate (Surrey) in c.1786, where he built a new house c.1795. Before 1807 he bought the Eaton Hall estate (Cheshire) and land at Rushton in Leek (Staffs) At his death his properties passed to his brother, Sir Edmund Antrobus, 1st bt.
He died 27 January 1816, aged 61 and was buried at Cheam, 3 February 1816, where he is commemorated by a monument; his will was proved in the PCC, 14 February 1816.

John Antrobus
Antrobus, John (1761-94). Younger son of Philip Antrobus of Congleton and his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Rowley of Overton (Staffs), baptised 30 October 1761. Briefly a stockbroker before being taken into partnership by Thomas Coutts, 1784. He married, 12 May 1791, Anne (c.1768-93), only daughter of Gibbs Crawfurd MP of Saint Hill, East Grinstead (Sussex), and had issue:
(1) Sir Edmund Antrobus (1792-1870), 2nd bt. (q.v.);
(2) Gibbs Crawfurd Antrobus (1793-1861) (q.v.).
He lived in Spring Gardens, Westminster (Middx).
He was critically injured in a riding accident at a tollgate near Saint Hill in 1793 and spent the last months of his life in a coma, dying on 27 April 1794, aged 32; he was buried at East Grinstead, where he is commemorated by a monument. His wife died following the birth of their second son, 18 June 1793, aged 25 and was also buried at East Grinstead.

Antrobus, Sir Edmund (1792-1870), 2nd bt., of Amesbury Abbey. Elder son of John Antrobus (d. 1794) and his wife Anne, daughter of Gibbs Crawfurd MP, born 17 May 1792. Educated at Eton, St. John's College, Cambridge (admitted 1809; BA 1814; MA 1817), and Lincolns Inn (admitted 1812). Became a partner in Coutts Bank, 1816. He married, 16 October 1817, Anne (c.1800-85), only daughter of Hon. Hugh Lindsay, and had issue:
(1) Sir Edmund Antrobus (1818-99), 3rd bt. (q.v.);
(2) Jane Antrobus (1819-99), born 20 November 1819; married, 3 August 1843, Rev. Sir Gilbert Frankland Lewis (1808-83), 3rd bt., prebendary of Worcester and had issue three sons and two daughters; died 20 October 1899;
(3) Anne Antrobus (1821-99), born 30 May 1821; married, 9 December 1847, Rt. Hon. Sir Henry George Elliot GCB (1817-1907) of Ardington House (Berks), younger son of 2nd Earl of Minto, and had issue one son and one daughter; died 17 December 1899;
(4) Hugh Lindsay Antrobus (1823-99) (q.v.);
(5) Harriet Coutts Antrobus (1824-26), born 31 August 1824; died in infancy, 27 April 1826;
(6) Caroline Antrobus (1827-1903), born 22 March 1827; married, 2 October 1860, Hon. Humphrey de Bohun Devereux, younger son of 14th Viscount Hereford; died without issue, 22 December 1903; will proved 30 March 1904 (effects £32,757);
(7) Robert Crawfurd Antrobus (1830-1911) (q.v.);
(8) John Edward Antrobus (1831-45), born 24 September 1831; died young, 21 April 1845;
(9) Anna Maria Antrobus (c.1836-98); married, 8 November 1859 at Amesbury, Cosmo Lewis Duff Gordon (1812-76) and had issue three sons and two daughters; died 26 January 1898; will proved 3 March 1898 (estate £3,163);
(10) Very Rev. Frederick Antrobus (1837-1903), born 4 August 1837; joined the diplomatic service and held postings in Paris (3rd Secretary), Washington and St Petersburg (2nd Secretary); described as "a man of commanding presence and a first-rate linguist"; joined the R.C. church and became one of the first priests at the Brompton Oratory, where he became Superior; died unmarried, 12 July 1903; will proved 14 August 1903 (estate £374).
He inherited the Amesbury Abbey and Rutherford estates from his father and rebuilt Amesbury Abbey in 1834-41 and 1857-60.
He died 4 May 1870 and was buried at Cheam; his will was proved 10 June 1870 (effects under £300,000). His widow died 1 December 1885, aged 85, and was buried at Cheam.

Antrobus, Sir Edmund (1818-99), 3rd bt. of Amesbury Abbey. Eldest son of Sir Edmund Antrobus (1792-1870), 2nd bt., and his wife Anne, daughter of Hon. Hugh Lindsay, born 3 September 1818. Educated at Eton and St John's College, Cambridge (admitted 1836; BA 1841; MA 1847). MP for East Surrey, 1841-47 and for Wilton, 1855-77; JP and DL for Wiltshire; High Sheriff of Wiltshire, 1880. He married, 11 February 1847, Marianne Georgiana (1823-1903), daughter of Sir George Dashwood, 4th bt., and had issue:
(1) Mary Anne Antrobus (1848-95), born Jan-Mar 1848; died unmarried, 29 November 1895; administration of goods granted 3 July 1903 (effects £325);
(2) Sir Edmund Antrobus (1848-1915), 4th bt. (q.v.);
(3) Louisa Emma Antrobus (1851-1929); married, 1874, Adm. Sir Algernon Charles Fieschi Heneage (1833-1915) and had issue one daughter; died 24 February 1929 and was buried at Brompton Cemetery; her will was proved 11 April 1929 (estate £4,807);
(6) Florence Antrobus (1854-1936); died unmarried, 21 September 1936; will proved 15 December 1936 (estate £17,015);
(4) Robert Lindsay Antrobus (1857-91), born 9 August 1857; junior partner in Coutts & Co.; died unmarried as the result of a self-inflicted gunshot, 5 March 1891; administration granted 21 July 1891 (effects £5,554) and 2 June 1903 (effects £1,924);
(5) Sir Cosmo Gordon Antrobus (1859-1939), 5th bt. (q.v.).
He inherited the Amesbury Abbey estate from his father in 1870 and in 1883 owned 10,673 acres, chiefly in Wiltshire (8,374 acres) and Roxburghshire (1,796 acres). Thomas Cubitt designed a large house at 14 Kensington Palace Gardens for him in 1849-51.
He died 1 April 1899 and was buried at Amesbury; his will was proved 6 September 1899 (effects £62,818). His widow died 3 February 1903; her will was proved 20 March 1903 (effects £3,794).

Antrobus, Col. Sir Edmund (1848-1915), 4th bt., of Amesbury Abbey. Eldest son of Sir Edmund Antrobus (1818-99), 3rd bt., and his wife Marianne Georgiana, daughter of Sir George Dashwood, 4th bt., born 25 December 1848. Colonel of 3rd Battn, Grenadier Guards; served in the second Suakin Expedition, 1885. He married, 2 March 1886, Florence Caroline Mathilde (1859-1923), daughter of Jules Alexander Sartoris of Hoppesford Hall (Warks), and had issue:
(1) Edmund Antrobus (1886-1914), born 23 December 1886; served in Grenadier Guards (2nd Lt., 1908; Lt., 1908); killed in action at Ypres, 24 October 1914, in the lifetime of his father; grant of administration, 22 July 1915 (estate £38,637).
He inherited the Amesbury Abbey estate from his father in 1899. As his only son predeceased him, at his death the title and estate passed to his younger brother, Sir Cosmo Gordon Antrobus, 5th bt.
He died 11 February 1915; his will was proved 10 June 1915 (estate £171,061). His widow died 19 February 1923.

Antrobus, Sir Cosmo Gordon (1859-1939), 5th bt., of Amesbury Abbey. Youngest son of Sir Edmund Antrobus (1818-99), 3rd bt., and his wife Marianne Georgiana, daughter of Sir George Dashwood, 4th bt., born 22 October 1859. Educated at Eton, Trinity College, Cambridge (admitted 1877; BA 1881; MA 1884) and Inner Temple (admitted 1879; called to bar, 1882); barrister-at-law on Western Circuit; JP for Wiltshire. He was unmarried and without issue.
He inherited the Amesbury Abbey and Rutherford estates from his elder brother in 1915 but sold most of the land in 1916, including Stonehenge. He also sold the Rutherford estate in 1921. At his death the title and remaining property passed to his cousin, Sir Philip Humphrey Antrobus, 6th bt.
He died 29 June 1939 and was buried at Amesbury; his will was proved 10 November 1939 (estate £170,318).

Antrobus, Hugh Lindsay (1823-99). Second son of Sir Edmund Antrobus (1792-1870), 2nd bt., and his wife Anne, daughter of Hon. Hugh Lindsay, born 1 January 1823 and baptised 29 June 1825. Educated at Eton. Served in King's Regiment of Cheshire Yeomanry Cavalry (Lt., 1847). Senior partner and later Chairman of Coutts Bank; Treasurer of Institute of Civil Engineers.  He married, 8 September 1859, Kathryn Mary (1829-1900), daughter of Adm. Sir Charles Adam of Blair Adam KCB and had issue:
(1) Charles Antrobus (1860-61), born 18 June 1860; died in infancy, 22 August 1861;
(2) Marion Lindsay Antrobus (1861-1927); married 1st, 25 October 1886, Capt. Henry Gerard Leigh (1856-1900), son of Henry Blundell Leigh, and had issue one son and two daughters; married 2nd, 16 April 1910, Lt-Col. Reginald Halsey (1873-1927), son of Sir Thomas Frederick Halsey, 1st bt. of Gaddesden Place (Herts); died 27 December 1927; will proved 24 February 1928 (estate £21,943);
(3) Katherine Mary Antrobus (1863-1947) of Sissinghurst Place (Kent); invested with the Order of the Precious Crown of Japan; married, 5 May 1886, Maj-Gen. Laurence George Drummond (1861-1946) and had issue two sons and two daughters; died 9 September 1947; will proved 5 January 1948 (estate £60,246);
(4) Helen Antrobus (1864-1922); married, 11 February 1888, Maj. Evelyn George Hammond Atherley (1852-1935) of Croft Castle (Herefs); died 22 November 1922; will proved 21 June 1923 (estate £14,900);
(5) Elizabeth Antrobus (1866-1944) of Charles Hill Court, Tilford (Surrey); died unmarried, 16 November 1944; will proved 17 April 1945 (estate £221,102).
He inherited Lower Cheam House from his father in 1870. After his death the house seems to have been let and later sold.
He died 18 March 1899; will proved 26 May 1899 (effects £354,339). His widow died 31 December 1900; her will was proved 28 January 1901 (effects £10,371)

Antrobus, Robert Crawfurd (1830-1911). Third son of Sir Edmund Antrobus (1792-1870), 2nd bt., and his wife Anne, daughter of Hon. Hugh Lindsay, born 21 March 1830. East India Agent. JP for Middlesex and London. He married, 2 August 1873, Emily (c.1849-1936), daughter of Col. John Ireland Blackburne MP of Hale Hall (Lancs) and widow of William John Hope Edwardes of Netley (Salop), and had issue:
(1) Sybil Mary Antrobus (1875-1932), born 19 January 1875; married, 20 September 1904, Sir Henry Tindal Methold (1869-1952), kt., Master in Lunacy 1928-44 (who m2, 1934, Daisy Emily, daughter of A.R. Mackmin), son of Thomas Tindal Methold of Hepworth House (Suffolk) and had issue one son and two daughters; died 24 March 1932; administration of goods, 17 May 1932 (effects £1,126);
(2) Sir Philip Humphrey Antrobus (1876-1968), 6th bt. (q.v.);
(3) Margaret Freda Evelyn Antrobus (1879-1959), born 4 August 1879; married, 24 August 1904, Hon. Gilbert de St. Croix Rollo (1872-1932), youngest son of John Rogerson Rollo, 10th Lord Rollo of Duncrub and had issue three sons and one daughter; died 26 October 1959.
He died 12 February 1911; his will was proved 3 May 1911 (estate £1,615). His widow died 21 December 1936; her will was proved 1 March 1937 (estate £4,958).

Antrobus, Sir Philip Humphrey (1876-1968), 6th bt., of Amesbury Abbey. Only son of Robert Crawfurd Antrobus (1830-1911) and his wife Emily, daughter of Col. John Ireland Blackburne of Hale Hall (Lancs) and widow of William John Hope Edwardes of Netley (Salop), born 22 July 1876. Educated at Eton. Captain in Irish Guards; served in First World War (wounded twice; mentioned in despatches); awarded MC 1918. Stockbroker. He married, 29 November 1919, Olive Geraldine Emma (1887-1979), daughter of Louis Theobald Dillon FitzGibbon and widow of Jordan Dumaresq (d. 1915) of Boston, but had no issue. His wife was awarded the Polish Gold Cross of Merit for her charitable work on behalf of the Polish refugee community during the Second World War.
He inherited Amesbury Abbey from his cousin, Sir Cosmo Gordon Antrobus, 5th bt., in 1939. About 1960 he converted the house into flats and moved to West Amesbury House. At his death the baronetcy and estate passed to his kinsman, Sir Philip Coutts Antrobus, 7th bt.
He died 11 July 1968. His widow died Jul-Sept. 1979, aged 92.

Gibbs Crawfurd Antrobus as a child
Antrobus, Gibbs Crawfurd (1793-1861) of Eaton Hall. Younger son of John Antrobus (d. 1794) and his wife Anne, daughter of Gibbs Crawfurd MP, born 27 May 1793. Educated at Eton, St John's College, Cambridge (admitted 1810; MA 1832) and Lincolns Inn (admitted 1812). Served in the diplomatic service, 1814-26; attended the Congress of Vienna with Lord Castlereagh, 1814-15; Secretary of Legation in Washington, 1816-21, Turin and Sardinia, 1823-24 and Sicily, 1824-26; MP for Aldborough (Yorks), 1820-26 and Plympton Erle, 1826-32, in which capacity he opposed Catholic emancipation and the Reform Bill; JP and DL for Cheshire; High Sheriff of Cheshire, 1834; his travelling carriage is preserved in the collection of the National Trust at Arlington Court (Devon). He married 1st, 25 June 1827, Jane (d. 1829), daughter of Sir Coutts Trotter, 1st bt. (a partner in Coutts Bank); and 2nd, 12 January 1832, Hon. Charlotte Crofton (d. 1839), daughter of Sir Edward Crofton, 2nd bt. of Mote (Roscommon) and his wife Anne, Baroness Crofton, and had issue:
(1.1) John Coutts Antrobus (1829-1916) (q.v.);
(2.1) Maj. Edward Crawfurd Antrobus (1835-64), born 28 February 1835; educated at Eton; served in Army from 1852-62 (Lt., 1854; Capt.); emigrated to New Zealand; Major in 2nd Waikato Militia; died unmarried in Auckland (New Zealand), 24 August 1864; will proved 16 January 1865 (estate under £1500);
(2.2) Charles Antrobus (1836-1905) of Odd Rode (Cheshire), born 26 August 1836; died unmarried, 17 May 1905; will proved 6 June 1905 (estate £13,189);
(2.3) Susan Emily Antrobus (1837-1913); foundress and Superior of Guild of St Barnabas for Nurses, 1876-1912; died unmarried at Nice (France), 2 January 1913, and was buried there;
(2.4) Anna Maria Antrobus (1839-1915), baptised 24 August 1839; married, 18 October 1864, Rev. Francis Richard Bryans (1835-1909), vicar of Higher Peover (Cheshire) and later rector of Greatham (Hants) 1893-1902, elder son of Rev. Francis Bryans, and had issue two daughters; died 23 June 1915 in Cambridge.
He inherited the Eaton Hall estate near Congleton (Cheshire) from his uncle, Sir Edmund Antrobus, 1st bt., in 1826, and rebuilt the house there in 1829-31.
He died 21 May and was buried at Astbury, 28 May 1861; his will was proved 19 June 1861 (effects under £25,000).  His first wife died 24 November 1829 in childbirth. His second wife died 29 September 1839.

Antrobus, John Coutts (1829-1916) of Eaton Hall. Only son of Gibbs Crawfurd Antrobus (1793-1861) and his first wife, Jane, daughter of Sir Coutts Trotter, 1st bt., born 23 November 1829 and baptised 26 December 1832 at Astbury (Cheshire). Educated at St John's College, Cambridge (admitted 1848; BA 1852; MA 1855) and Lincolns Inn (admitted 1852; called to bar 1857); barrister-at-law. JP and CC for Cheshire; High Sheriff of Cheshire, 1868; Hon. Lt-Col. of Earl of Chester's Yeomanry Cavalry. He married 1st, 29 September 1855, Fanny (c.1831-63), daughter of Clement Swettenham of Somerford Booths (Cheshire); 2nd, 10 January 1865, Mary Caroline (1836-72), daughter of Geoffrey Joseph Shakerley; and 3rd, 6 February 1875, Mary Egidia (1851-1911), youngest daughter of Gen. the Hon. Sir James Lindsay KCMG, and had issue:
(1.1) Eleanor Margaret Antrobus (1856-73), baptised 29 September 1856; died unmarried and was buried at Eaton, 23 December 1873;
(1.2) Blanche Helen Antrobus (1858-1954); died unmarried, 26 November 1954, aged 96; will proved 26 January 1955 (estate £7,955);
(1.3) Jane Mary Evelyn Antrobus (1860-1937), baptised 22 April 1860; married, 23 November 1899 as his second wife, Arthur Francis Thomas Cooper (1858-1918) of Culland Hall, Brailsford (Derbys), and had issue one child (who died young); died 26 July 1937 and was buried at Brailsford (Derbys); will proved 12 October 1937 (estate £10,903);
(1.4) Crawfurd John Antrobus (1862-1943) of Eaton Hallborn 16 June 1862; land agent; married, 6 June 1900 at St Marylebone (Middx), Marie (c.1865-1930), daughter of Thomas Hamilton, gent. and widow of Dennis Pearce; died 10 September 1943; will proved 8 February 1944 (estate £86,374);
(2.1) Dora Katharine Antrobus (1866-1919), baptised 6 May 1866; died unmarried, 29/30 January 1919;
(2.2) Geoffrey Edward Antrobus (1867-1958) (q.v.);
(2.3) Philip Robert Antrobus (1869-74), baptised 19 December 1869; died young and was buried at Eaton, 1 July 1874;
(2.4) Ralph Edmund Antrobus (1871-1927), born 4 September 1871; educated at Charterhouse; married, 16 November 1901 in Kensington (Middx), Millicent (1875-1937), daughter of Edward Lindsey de Morgan (and niece of the artist, William de Morgan) and had issue two sons and two daughters; emigrated to South Africa and died 2 April 1927;
(3.1) Rev. Jocelyn James Antrobus (1876-1953), born 9 May and baptised 4 June 1876; educated at Charterhouse and New College, Oxford (BA 1900; MA 1902); ordained deacon, 1901 and priest, 1902; curate of Hatfield (Herts), 1904-13; vicar of Saffron Walden (Essex), 1913-17; rector of Hatfield (Herts), 1917-36; retired to Somerset where he became a JP; married, 10 June 1915, Justine Mary Louisa (d. 1964), daughter of Major William Affleck King and had issue one son and one daughter; died 10 September 1953; will proved 8 December 1953 (estate £25,485);
(3.2) Capt. Cecil Hugh Antrobus (1877-1915), born 25 September 1877; educated at Charterhouse School; served in Boer War and WW1 with Cameron Highlanders and was killed in action at Loos-en-Gohelle (France), 26 September 1915; will proved 15 October 1915 (estate £44);
(3.3) Walter Guy Antrobus (1879-1963), baptised 8 April 1878; educated at Charterhouse School; fought in Boer War with Marshall's Horse, 1901-02;  married, 19 August 1907, Kathleen Frances (b. c.1877), daughter of Brig-Gen. Arthur Broadwood, and had issue three sons and two daughters; emigrated to South Africa and died in Pietermaritzburg, 19 April 1963; will proved 10 September 1963 (estate in England £5,241);
(3.4) Charles Alexander Antrobus (1880-1915), born 16 December 1880; educated at Charterhouse School; served in Kings Own Scottish Borderers from 1906 (Capt., 1908) and was killed in action in the Dardenelles, 25 April 1915; will proved 22 May 1915 (estate £590);
(3.5) Mabel Dorothy Antrobus (1882-1942), born 21 August and baptised 1 October 1882; married, 12 April 1918, Henry Lister Reade, son of Henry Lister Reade of Congleton (Cheshire) and had issue one daughter; died 8 October 1942; will proved 5 March 1943 (estate £15,461);
(3.6) Col. Ronald Henry Antrobus (1891-1980) (q.v.).
He inherited the Eaton Hall estate from his father in 1861.
He died 19 December 1916; will proved 9 May 1917 (estate £97,486). His first wife died 20 and was buried at Eaton, 26 September 1863. His second wife died 11 and was buried at Eaton, 18 September 1872. His third wife died 1 July 1911; her will was proved 18 August 1911 (estate £1,641).

Antrobus, Geoffrey Edward (1867-1958). Eldest son of John Coutts Antrobus (1829-1916) of Eaton Hall and his second wife, Mary Caroline (d. 1872), daughter of Geoffrey Joseph Shakerley, born 15 September 1867. Educated at Charterhouse School. He married, 3 December 1898, Mary Atherstone (1874-1954), daughter of Hilton Barber of Halesowen, Cradock, Cape Province, South Africa, and had issue:
(1) Sir Philip Coutts Antrobus (1908-95), 7th bt. (q.v.);
(2) Ida Dorothy Antrobus (b. 1909), born 3 August 1909; married 1st, 7 July 1937 (div. 1940), Frank Thomas Hayes Jr. son of F.T.R. Hayes Sr. of Grafton, Cathcart, Cape Province (South Africa) and had issue one daughter; married 2nd, 23 March 1944, Cyril Embleton Hilton Barber (b. 1905) of Conway, Cape Province (South Africa) and had issue one son and one daughter;
(3) Mary Shakerley Antrobus (1913-2000), born 4 March 1913; married, 19 June 1937 Edward Mounsey Gilfillan JP (1910-81) of Conway Farm, Conway Station, Cape Province (South Africa), son of Edward Thornhill Gilfillan of Brincliffe, Tafelberg, Middleburg, Cape Province (South Africa) and had issue two sons and two daughters; died 21 November 2000;
(4) Crawfurd Ralph Antrobus (b. 1915) of Grahamstown (South Africa), born 29 September 1915; served in Second World War (wounded); married, 12 July 1943, Sheila Marcia, daughter of Ven. Alfred Edward McKenzie of Cradock, Cape Province (South Africa) and had issue one son and one daughter.
He died 16 July 1958, aged 90. His wife died 28 April 1954.

Antrobus, Sir Philip Coutts (1908-95), 7th bt., of West Amesbury House. Elder son of Geoffrey Edward Antrobus (1867-1958) and his wife Mary Atherstone, daughter of Hilton Barber of Halesowen, Cradock, Cape Province (South Africa), born 10 April 1908. Served in Second World War, 1939-42 (prisoner of war). He married 1st, 28 August 1937, Dorothy Mary (d. 1973), daughter of Rev. William George Davis of Tarkastad, Grahamstown (South Africa); 2nd, 1975, Doris Primrose (d. 1986), daughter of Harry George Watts and widow of Thomas Ralph Dawkins; and 3rd, 1991, Esme Florence Bayes, daughter of Dudley Charles Windsor and widow of Frank Herbert Mawer, and had issue:
(1) Sir Edward Philip Antrobus (b. 1938), 8th bt., born 28 September 1938; educated at Witwatersrand University (BSc 1961) and Magdalen College, Cambridge (BA 1965; MA 1969); married 1st, 7 October 1966, Janet (d. 1990), elder daughter of Philip Walter Sceales of Hyde Park, Johannesburg (South Africa) and had issue one son and two daughters; married 2nd, 29 November 1996, Rozanne Penelope, daughter of Neville Simpson of Durban (South Africa); now living in South Africa;
(2) Michael Ronald Antrobus (b. 1939) of Cradock, Cape Province (South Africa), born 21 October 1939; educated in South Africa (Dip. Ag.); married, 27 January 1968, Sandra, daughter of J.H. Moolman of Middleton, Cape Province (South Africa) and had issue one son and two daughters; now living;
(3) Patricia Jennifer Antrobus (b. 1948) of Norwich, born 25 August 1948; married, 1971, Maj. Michael George Rodgers Montgomery and had issue one son and one daughter; now living.
He inherited the Amesbury Abbey estate from his kinsman, Sir Philip Humphrey Antrobus, 6th bt., in 1968. He sold the Abbey with 20 acres of grounds in 1979 but retained West Amesbury House and about 200 acres.
He died 1 August 1995. His first wife died in September 1973. His second wife died in 1986. His widow is now living.

Antrobus, Col. Ronald Henry (1891-1980). Ninth and youngest son of John Coutts Antrobus (1829-1916) of Eaton Hall by his third wife, Mary Egidia, youngest daughter of Gen. the Hon. Sir James Lindsay KCMG, born 8 November 1891. Educated at Charterhouse School. Served in Royal Artillery, 1913-44, retiring as Lt-Col. (mentioned in despatches three times in First World War and awarded MC 1916). JP for Cheshire, 1948, and DL 1952; High Sheriff of Cheshire, 1960. Member of Cheshire Rivers Board. He married, 24 November 1921, Muriel Kathleen (1891-1980), eldest daughter of Richard Henry Gosling of Hawthorn Hill, Bracknell (Berks) and widow of Capt. Henry Miles Chetwynd-Stapleton, and had issue:
(1) John Ronald Lindsay Antrobus (1926-2000), born 12 June 1926; educated at Eton and Magdalene College, Cambridge (BA, 1950; MA, 1955) and Trinity College, Oxford; served in the army in Palestine, 1947-48; married 1st, 16 February 1952 (div. 1960), Ann, eldest daughter of Cdr. Denys Royds Brocklebank RN of Longbridge House (Wilts) (who m2, 1 April 1961, Maurice Stanley Gooding) and had issue two sons; married 2nd, 22 November 1961 (div. 1966), Margaret Jane, only child of Dr. J.H. Penman of Eskbank (Midlothian); married 3rd, 26 August 1966 Rochelle Christine, younger daughter of Theodore William Candee of Pasadena, California (USA) and had issue two sons and three daughters; died 16 July 2000.
He inherited the Eaton Hall estate from his elder brother in 1943. He sold most of the grounds for gravel digging and after his death his son demolished Eaton Hall to allow further extraction.
He died 11 June 1980. His wife died in September 1980.


Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 2003; E.H. Coleridge, The life of Thomas Coutts, 1920; Sir N. Pevsner & B. Cherry, The buildings of England: Wiltshire, 2nd edn., 1975, pp. 91-93; N. Burton, 'Thomas Hopper', in R. Brown (ed.), The Architectural Outsiders, 1985, pp. 129-31; J. Bold, Wilton House and English Palladianism, 1988, pp. 95-123; P. de Figueiredo & J. Treuherz, Cheshire Country Houses, 1988, p.233; J. Bold, John Webb, 1989, pp. 94-100; VCH Wiltshire, vol. 15, pp. 13-55; C. Bright, 'Realpolitik and Elizabethan Ceremony: The Earl of Hertford's Entertainment of Elizabeth at Elvetham, 1591', Renaissance Quarterly, vol. 45 (1), 1992, pp. 20-48; M. Drury, Wandering Architects, 2000, pp. 112-22; P. Willis, Charles Bridgeman and the English landscape garden, 2nd edn., 2002, pp. 53-54; T. Mowl, The historic gardens of Wiltshire, 2004, pp. 27-28, 68-69; D.J. Ride, 'Tower Hill, Newton Tony, Wiltshire', Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Magazine, 2005, pp. 128-42; T. Mowl & M. Mako, The historic gardens of England: Cheshire, 2008, pp. 102-03;

Location of archives

Antrobus family of Amesbury Abbey, baronets: deeds, estate and family papers relating to Amesbury estate, 13th cent-1901 [Wiltshire & Swindon History Centre, 283]
Antrobus family of Eaton Hall: architectural plans by S.P. Cockerell, 1813 and Lewis Wyatt, 1828 [Cheshire Record Office, D4637]; deeds, estate and family papers, 18th-20th cents [Staffordshire Record Office, Stafford, D(W)1909]; photograph album, including interior views of Eaton Hall [Congleton Museum]

Coat of arms

Lozengy or and azures on a pale gules three estoiles of six points wavy of the first.